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Female human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines exhibit variability in X-inactivation status. The majority of hiPSC lines maintain one transcriptionally active X (Xa) and one inactive X (Xi) chromosome from donor cells. However, at low frequency, hiPSC lines with two Xas are produced, suggesting that epigenetic alterations of the Xi occur(More)
We present an approach for identifying genes under natural selection using polymorphism and divergence data from synonymous and non-synonymous sites within genes. A generalized linear mixed model is used to model the genome-wide variability among categories of mutations and estimate its functional consequence. We demonstrate how the model's estimated fixed(More)
Heart development is exquisitely sensitive to the precise temporal regulation of thousands of genes that govern developmental decisions during differentiation. However, we currently lack a detailed understanding of how chromatin and gene expression patterns are coordinated during developmental transitions in the cardiac lineage. Here, we interrogated the(More)
To gain insights into evolutionary forces that have shaped the history of Bornean and Sumatran populations of orang-utans, we compare patterns of variation across more than 11 million single nucleotide polymorphisms found by previous mitochondrial and autosomal genome sequencing of 10 wild-caught orang-utans. Our analysis of the mitochondrial data yields a(More)
We show that a natural behavior, exploration of a novel environment, causes DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in neurons of young adult wild-type mice. DSBs occurred in multiple brain regions, were most abundant in the dentate gyrus, which is involved in learning and memory, and were repaired within 24 h. Increasing neuronal activity by sensory or optogenetic(More)
Aging is the primary risk factor for cognitive decline, an emerging health threat to aging societies worldwide. Whether anti-aging factors such as klotho can counteract cognitive decline is unknown. We show that a lifespan-extending variant of the human KLOTHO gene, KL-VS, is associated with enhanced cognition in heterozygous carriers. Because this allele(More)
Approximately 100 mouse genes undergo genomic imprinting, whereby one of the two parental alleles is epigenetically silenced. Imprinted genes influence processes including development, X chromosome inactivation, obesity, schizophrenia, and diabetes, motivating the identification of all imprinted loci. Local sequence features have been used to predict(More)
Streptococcus mutans is widely recognized as one of the key etiological agents of human dental caries. Despite its role in this important disease, our present knowledge of gene content variability across the species and its relationship to adaptation is minimal. Estimates of its demographic history are not available. In this study, we generated genome(More)
Recent developments in mass-spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics, especially methods using spectral counting, have enabled large-scale identification and differential profiling of complex proteomes. Most such proteomic studies are interested in identifying proteins, the abundance of which is different under various conditions. Several quantitative methods(More)
Supplementary Figure 1. Increased number of neurons with γH2A.X foci in young hAPP-J20 mice (ad) Numbers of cells with γH2A.X-positive foci in different brain regions of 1.5–2.2-month-old NTG and hAPP-J20 mice (n=6 mice/genotype). *p<0.05 (two-tailed, unpaired Student's t-test). Bars represent means + SEM.