Kirsi Vaaralahti

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BACKGROUND Kallmann syndrome (KS), comprised of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and anosmia, is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Its exact incidence is currently unknown, and a mutation in one of the identified KS genes has only been found in ~30% of the patients. METHODS Herein, we investigated epidemiological, clinical,(More)
Mutations in FGFR1, GNRHR, PROK2, PROKR2, TAC3, or TACR3 underlie isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) with clinically variable phenotypes, and, by causing incomplete intrauterine activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, may lead to cryptorchidism. To investigate the role of defects in these genes in the etiology of isolated(More)
BACKGROUND Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a rare cause for delayed or absent puberty. These patients may recover from HH spontaneously in adulthood. To date, it is not possible to predict who will undergo HH reversal later in life. Herein we investigated whether Finnish patients with reversal of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism(More)
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