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In this study, the prevalence of different enteric viruses in commercial mussels was evaluated at the retail level in three European countries (Finland, Greece and Spain). A total of 153 mussel samples from different origins were analysed for human norovirus (NoV) genogroups I and II, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Human adenovirus(More)
In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses. A total of 785 samples were collected throughout the food(More)
The anticoagulant and antithrombotic effect of heparin has been known for many decades. Nevertheless, the knowledge of structure-activity relationships and its mechanisms of action has been rather limited. However, in recent years important progress has been made and our understanding of how heparin works has increased significantly. Based on this(More)
We describe a cluster of norovirus outbreaks affecting about 200 people in Southern Finland in September and October 2009. All outbreaks occurred after consumption of imported raspberries from the same batch intended for the catering sector. Human norovirus genotype GI.4 was found in frozen raspberries. The berries were served in toppings of cakes in(More)
The three structural proteins of Semliki Forest virus--i.e., the capsid, p62, and E1 proteins--were expressed in baby hamster kidney cells from cloned DNA transcribed from the virus-specific 4.1-kilobase mRNA. The cDNA was engineered into an expression vector developed by others [Mulligan, R. C. & Berg, P. (1980) Science 209, 1422--1427] downstream from(More)
Norovirus (NoV) is one of the most common causative agents of waterborne gastroenteritis outbreaks. The main objective of the study was to determine the presence of human NoVs in river water and in treated wastewater (TW) released into the river. During a one-year survey in 2007/2008, NoVs were detected in 30.8% of river samples (20/65), and 40.5% of TW(More)
This study condenses data acquired during investigations of the virological quality of irrigation water used in production of fresh produce. One hundred and eight samples of irrigation water were collected from five berry fruit farms in Finland (1), the Czech Republic (1), Serbia (2), and Poland (1), and sixty-one samples were collected from three leafy(More)
To study the influence of surgical trauma on the XaI and IIaI activity after injection of a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) 24 patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy received one subcutaneous injection of the LMWH Fragmin. Each group of eight patients received either 2,500 or 5,000 XaI U 2 h before operation or 5,000 XaI U 10 h before surgery. For(More)
Size homogeneous heparin oligosaccharides were prepared from nitrous acid depolymerized heparin by means of repeated gel filtration chromatography. These oligosaccharides were then further separated with respect to affinity for antithrombin by means of affinity chromatography. All the high-affinity oligosaccharides thus obtained had a strong ability to(More)
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