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Nebulin is a giant modular sarcomeric protein that has been proposed to play critical roles in myofibrillogenesis, thin filament length regulation, and muscle contraction. To investigate the functional role of nebulin in vivo, we generated nebulin-deficient mice by using a Cre knock-in strategy. Lineage studies utilizing this mouse model demonstrated that(More)
Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infections induce myocarditis in humans and mice. Little is known about the molecular characteristics of CVB3 that activate the cellular immunity responsible for cardiac inflammation. Previous experiments have identified an antibody escape mutant (H310A1) of a myocarditic variant of CVB3 (H3) that attenuates the myocarditic(More)
Infection of cells by picornaviruses of the rhinovirus, aphthovirus, and enterovirus groups results in the shutoff of host protein synthesis but allows viral protein synthesis to proceed. Although considerable evidence suggests that this shutoff is mediated by the cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4G by sequence-specific viral(More)
We investigated extraneural manifestations in scrapie-infected transgenic mice expressing prion protein lacking the glycophosphatydylinositol membrane anchor. In the brain, blood, and heart, both abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) and prion infectivity were readily detected by immunoblot and by inoculation into nontransgenic recipients. The(More)
BACKGROUND Interferons (IFNs) play an important role in antiviral defense and have therapeutic potential in coxsackievirus heart disease. However, little is known about the relative contributions of type I and type II IFN signaling in coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection or their role in the cardioselective nature of CVB3 infection. METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
BACKGROUND Enteroviral ribonucleic acids have been identified in heart muscle of a subset of patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy as well as in a mouse model of persistent coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection, suggesting that persistent viral infection along with activation of an immune response may contribute to the pathogenesis of ongoing(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) is the preferred treatment for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), but persistent pulmonary hypertension after PTE, as a result of either inaccessible distal thrombotic material or coexistent intrinsic small-vessel disease, remains a major determinant of poor outcome. Conventional(More)
Cypher long (CypherL) and short (CypherS) isoforms are distinguished from each other by the presence and absence of three C-terminal LIM domains, respectively. Cypher isoforms are developmentally regulated, and mutations affecting both long and short isoforms are linked to muscle disease in humans. Given these data, we hypothesized that various Cypher(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with enteroviruses like coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) as well as genetic dystrophin deficiency can cause dilated cardiomyopathy. We recently identified cleavage and functional impairment of dystrophin by the viral protease 2A during CVB3-infection as a molecular mechanism that may contribute to the pathogenesis of enterovirus-induced(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about innate immune mechanisms within the cardiac myocyte that determine susceptibility to enterovirus infection, an important cause of myocarditis and subsequent heart failure. Although interferon (IFN) generally plays a key role in innate immunity, ablation of IFN receptors has little or no effect on acute coxsackievirus B3(More)