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Gene targeting--homologous recombination of DNA sequences residing in the chromosome with newly introduced DNA sequences--in mouse embryo-derived stem cells promises to provide a means to generate mice of any desired genotype. We describe a positive nd negative selection procedure that enriches 2,000-fold for those cells that contain a targeted mutation.(More)
The int-1 proto-oncogene was first identified as a gene activated in virally induced mouse mammary tumours. Expression studies, however, suggest that the normal function of this gene may be in spermatogenesis and in the development of the central nervous system. Genes sharing sequence similarity with int-1 have been found throughout the animal kingdom. For(More)
We mutated, by gene targeting, the endogenous hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene in mouse embryo-derived stem (ES) cells. A specialized construct of the neomycin resistance (neor) gene was introduced into an exon of a cloned fragment of the Hprt gene and used to transfect ES cells. Among the G418r colonies, 1/1000 were also resistant to the(More)
A procedure is described that directs the self-induced deletion of DNA sequences as they pass through the male germ line of mice. The testes-specific promoter from the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene was used to drive expression of the Cre-recombinase gene. Cre was linked to the selectable marker Neor, and the two genes flanked with loxP elements. This(More)
The formation of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the distal outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. Recent work in the chick has demonstrated that interplay between the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways is essential in the limb mesenchyme and ectoderm in the establishment and perhaps the maintenance of the AER. In the mouse, whereas(More)
The most common cause of cystic fibrosis is a mutation that deletes phenylalanine 508 in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The delta F508 protein is misprocessed and degraded rather than traveling to the apical membrane. We used a novel strategy to introduce the delta F508 mutation into the mouse CFTR gene. Affected epithelia from(More)
Axonal guidance and vascular patterning share several guidance cues, including proteins in the netrin family. We demonstrate that netrins stimulate proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human endothelial cells in vitro and that this stimulation is independent of known netrin receptors. Suppression of netrin1a messenger RNA in zebrafish inhibits(More)
Biological diversity is driven mainly by gene duplication followed by mutation and selection. This divergence in either regulatory or protein-coding sequences can result in quite different biological functions for even closely related genes. This concept is exemplified by the mammalian Hox gene complex, a group of 39 genes which are located on 4 linkage(More)
Slit-Roundabout (Robo) signalling has a well-understood role in axon guidance. Unlike in the nervous system, however, Slit-dependent activation of an endothelial-specific Robo, Robo4, does not initiate a guidance program. Instead, Robo4 maintains the barrier function of the mature vascular network by inhibiting neovascular tuft formation and endothelial(More)
Mutations were targeted to the Hprt locus in murine embryonic stem cells by using sequence replacement vectors. When the vector was designed such that the mutated sequences were flanked on both sides by several kilobases of DNA homologous to the target locus, replacement of chromosomal sequences with the exogenous DNA occurred with precision. If, on the(More)