Kirk Kitchin

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Recent advances in our knowledge of arsenic carcinogenesis include the development of rat or mouse models for all human organs in which inorganic arsenic is known to cause cancer-skin, lung, urinary bladder, liver, and kidney. Tumors can be produced from either promotion of carcinogenesis protocols (mouse skin and lungs, rat bladder, kidney, liver, and(More)
Many modes of action for arsenic carcinogenesis have been proposed, but few theories have a substantial mass of supporting data. Three stronger theories of arsenic carcinogenesis are production of chromosomal abnormalities, promotion of carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. This article presents the oxidative stress theory along with some supporting(More)
The in vitro effects of four different species of arsenic (arsenate, arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid) in mobilizing iron from horse spleen ferritin under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were investigated. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) significantly released iron from horse spleen ferritin(More)
Both dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) release iron from human liver ferritin (HLF) with or without the presence of ascorbic acid. With ascorbic acid the rate of iron release from HLF by DMA(V) was intermediate (3.37 nM/min, P<0.05) and by DMA(III) was much higher (16.3 nM/min, P<0.001). No pBR322 plasmid DNA damage was(More)
Three of the most plausible biological theories of arsenic carcinogenesis are protein binding, oxidative stress and altered DNA methylation. This review presents the role of trivalent arsenicals binding to proteins in arsenic carcinogenesis. Using vacuum filtration based receptor dissociation binding techniques, the lifetimes of unidentate (<1s), bidentate(More)
We utilized radioactive 73As-labeled arsenite and vacuum filtration methodology to determine the binding affinity of arsenite to eight synthetic peptides ranging from 13 to 24 amino acids long and containing one or two cysteines separated by 0-17 intervening amino acids. Six of the eight peptides were highly similar in amino acid sequence and were based on(More)
Forty halogenated hydrocarbons of known rodent carcinogenicity (24 carcinogens, 16 noncarcinogens), including many promoters of carcinogenesis, nongenotoxic carcinogens, and hepatocarcinogens, were selected for study. The chemicals were administered by gavage in two dose levels to female Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of these 40 chemicals on four(More)
Seafood frequently contains high concentrations of arsenic (approximately 10-100 mg/kg dry weight). In marine algae (seaweed), this arsenic occurs predominantly as ribose derivatives known collectively as arsenosugars. Although it is clear that arsenosugars are not acutely toxic, there is a possibility of arsenosugars having slight chronic toxicity. In(More)
Lung is a major target for arsenic carcinogenesis in humans by both oral and inhalation routes. However, the carcinogenic mode of action of arsenicals is unknown. We investigated the effects of inorganic arsenic (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) and dimethylthioarsinic acid (DMTA), a sulfur containing dimethyl(More)