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The plant innate immune response includes the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death (PCD). PCD must be restricted to infection sites to prevent the HR from playing a pathologic rather than protective role. Here we show that plant BECLIN 1, an ortholog of the yeast and mammalian autophagy gene ATG6/VPS30/beclin 1, functions to(More)
Plant innate immunity relies on the recognition of pathogen effector molecules by nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immune receptor families. Previously we have shown the N immune receptor, a member of TIR-NB-LRR family, indirectly recognizes the 50 kDa helicase (p50) domain of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) through its TIR domain. We have(More)
Rice blast disease is caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, which invades living plant cells using intracellular invasive hyphae (IH) that grow from one cell to the next. The cellular and molecular processes by which this occurs are not understood. We applied live-cell imaging to characterize the spatial and temporal development of IH and(More)
Beneficial soil bacteria confer immunity against a wide range of foliar diseases by activating plant defenses, thereby reducing a plant's susceptibility to pathogen attack. Although bacterial signals have been identified that activate these plant defenses, plant metabolites that elicit rhizobacterial responses have not been demonstrated. Here, we provide(More)
Knowledge remains limited about how fungal pathogens that colonize living plant cells translocate effector proteins inside host cells to regulate cellular processes and neutralize defense responses. To cause the globally important rice blast disease, specialized invasive hyphae (IH) invade successive living rice (Oryza sativa) cells while enclosed in(More)
High-pressure freezing and freeze substitution were used to prepare leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) for ultrastructural analysis. Under these preparative conditions, plastid-derived stroma-containing protuberances were preserved and described with the electron microscope for the first time. Similar protuberances were observed previously only in living(More)
The fluorescent proteins AmCyan, ZsGreen, ZsYellow, and AsRed, modified versions of proteins identified recently from several Anthozoa species of reef corals, were expressed for the first time in a heterologous system and used for imaging two different fungal plant pathogens. When driven by strong constitutive fungal promotors, expression of these reef(More)
Plant innate immunity is mediated by Resistance (R) proteins, which bear a striking resemblance to animal molecules of similar function. Tobacco N is a TIR-NB-LRR R gene that confers resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus, specifically the p50 helicase domain. An intriguing question is how plant R proteins recognize the presence of pathogen-derived Avirulence(More)
During plant-pathogen interactions, the plant may mount several types of defense responses to either block the pathogen completely or ameliorate the amount of disease. Such responses include release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to attack the pathogen, as well as formation of cell wall appositions (CWAs) to physically block pathogen penetration. A(More)
Five hydrophobin genes have been identified in the fungal corn pathogen Fusarium verticillioides. HYD1, HYD2, and HYD3 encode Class I hydrophobins. The predicted structures of Hyd1p and Hyd2p are 80% similar, while Hyd3p has an unusually small number of amino acids between the third and fourth cysteines. HYD4 and HYD5 encode Class II hydrophobins. Mutants(More)