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Dysregulation of the fear system is at the core of many psychiatric disorders. Much progress has been made in uncovering the neural basis of fear learning through studies in which associative emotional memories are formed by pairing an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS; e.g., a tone) to an unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., a shock).(More)
Declarative memories are thought to be stored within anatomically distributed neuronal networks requiring the hippocampus; however, it is unclear how neocortical areas participate in memory at the time of encoding. Here, we use a c-fos-based genetic tagging system to selectively express the channelrhodopsin variant, ChEF, and optogenetically reactivate a(More)
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family of structurally related proteins that promote neuronal differentiation and survival during development, is a potent modulator of synaptic plasticity. Changes in BDNF expression, release and neuromodulatory activity, mediated by both epigenetic and post-translational mechanisms,(More)
Considerable evidence indicates that the general blockade of protein synthesis prevents both the initial consolidation and the postretrieval reconsolidation of long-term memories. These findings come largely from studies of drugs that block ribosomal function, so as to globally interfere with both cap-dependent and -independent forms of translation. Here we(More)
Structural changes in brain circuits active during learning are thought to be important for long-term memory storage. If these changes support long-term information storage, they might be expected to be present at distant time points after learning, as well as to be specific to the circuit activated with learning, and sensitive to the contingencies of the(More)
Among all the HIV-1 integrase inhibitors, the beta-diketo acids (DKAs) represent a major lead in anti-HIV-1 integrase drug design. These derivatives inhibit the integration reaction in vitro with a strong specificity for the 3'-end joining step. They are also antiviral and inhibit integration in vivo. The aim of the present study has been to investigate the(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase (HIV-1 IN) is an essential enzyme for effective viral replication. Therefore, IN inhibitors are being sought for chemotherapy against AIDS. We had previously identified a series of salicylhydrazides as potent inhibitors of IN in vitro (Neamati, N.; et al. J. Med. Chem. 1998, 41, 3202-3209.). Herein, we report(More)
The beta-diketo acids (DKAs) represent a major advance for anti-HIV-1 integrase drug development. We compared the inhibition of HIV-1 integrase by six DKA derivatives using the wild-type enzyme or the double-mutant F185K/C280S, which has been previously used for crystal structure determinations. With the wild-type enzyme, we found that DKAs could be(More)
The 4-aryl-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-2-butenoic acids and their isosteric tetrazoles are among an emerging class of aryl beta-diketo (ADK)-based agents which exhibit potent inhibition of HIV-1 integrase (IN)-catalyzed strand transfer (ST) processes, while having much reduced potencies against 3'-processing (3'-P) reactions. In the current study, L-708,906 (10e) and(More)
Much of what is known about the neurobiology of learning and memory comes from studies of the average behavior. In contrast, intersubject differences that emerge within groups are difficult to study systematically and are often excluded from scientific discussion. Nevertheless, population-wide variability is a virtually universal feature of both complex(More)