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To find inherited causes of autism-spectrum disorders, we studied families in which parents share ancestors, enhancing the role of inherited factors. We mapped several loci, some containing large, inherited, homozygous deletions that are likely mutations. The largest deletions implicated genes, including PCDH10 (protocadherin 10) and DIA1 (deleted in(More)
The intracellular redox potential plays an important role in cell survival. The principal intracellular reductant NADPH is mainly produced by the pentose phosphate pathway by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the rate-limiting enzyme, and by 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Considering the importance of NADPH, we hypothesized that G6PDH plays a(More)
Recent studies have shown that hyperglycemia is a principal cause of cellular damage in patients with diabetes mellitus. A major consequence of hyperglycemia is increased oxidative stress. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) plays an essential role in the regulation of oxidative stress by primarily regulating NADPH, the main intracellular reductant. In(More)
OBJECTIVE To define the behavioral profile of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH), a malformation of cortical development that is associated with seizures but reportedly normal intelligence, and to correlate the results with anatomic and clinical features of this disorder. METHODS Ten consecutive subjects with PNH, all with epilepsy and at least two(More)
Periventricular heterotopia (PH) is a malformation of cortical development characterized by the ectopic localization of neuronal nodules along the lateral ventricle. Mutations in X-linked filamin A gene are the most common cause of PH, although a rarer autosomal recessive form of PH with microcephaly due to ARFGEF2 mutations has been described [Sheen et(More)
We report here on the first case of a child with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) and Williams syndrome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses demonstrated a deletion of the elastin gene in the Williams syndrome critical region (WSCR). Further mapping by loss of heterozygosity analysis both by microsatellite marker and SNP(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple lines of evidence have suggested that developmental dyslexia may be associated with abnormalities of neuronal migration or axonal connectivity. In patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia--a rare genetic brain malformation characterized by misplaced nodules of gray matter along the lateral ventricles--a specific and unexpected(More)
Schizencephaly is a brain malformation disorder characterized by one or more full-thickness clefts through the cerebral cortex. While initial reports suggested that EMX2 mutations are a common cause of schizencephaly, more recent evidence suggests that EMX2 mutations are not a common cause of this malformation. To determine the frequency of EMX2 mutations(More)
Schizencephaly is a human brain malformation distinguished by full-thickness unilateral or bilateral clefts through the neocortex. Heterozygous mutations in the EMX2 locus are reported to give rise to schizencephaly. However, the comprehensive identification of causative genetic loci is precluded by a lack of large pedigrees and genome-wide linkage(More)
PURPOSE To explore the concerns of at-risk relatives of colorectal cancer patients about genetic discrimination and their awareness of current legislative protections. METHODS A questionnaire was sent to unaffected individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer who had enrolled in the Johns Hopkins Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Registry (N = 777).(More)