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To find inherited causes of autism-spectrum disorders, we studied families in which parents share ancestors, enhancing the role of inherited factors. We mapped several loci, some containing large, inherited, homozygous deletions that are likely mutations. The largest deletions implicated genes, including PCDH10 (protocadherin 10) and DIA1 (deleted in(More)
OBJECTIVE To define the behavioral profile of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH), a malformation of cortical development that is associated with seizures but reportedly normal intelligence, and to correlate the results with anatomic and clinical features of this disorder. METHODS Ten consecutive subjects with PNH, all with epilepsy and at least two(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple lines of evidence have suggested that developmental dyslexia may be associated with abnormalities of neuronal migration or axonal connectivity. In patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia--a rare genetic brain malformation characterized by misplaced nodules of gray matter along the lateral ventricles--a specific and unexpected(More)
A number of familial syndromes of bilateral polymicrogyria (PMG) have been described, but reported unilateral PMG cases have generally been sporadic. The authors identified four families in which unilateral right-sided PMG on MRI was present in more than one individual, with pathologic confirmation in one. Core clinical features included contralateral(More)
OBJECTIVE To define the clinical, radiologic, and genetic features of periventricular heterotopia (PH) with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). METHODS Exonic sequencing and single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was performed on affected individuals. Linkage analysis using microsatellite markers on the X-chromosome was performed on a(More)
Schizencephaly is a human brain malformation distinguished by full-thickness unilateral or bilateral clefts through the neocortex. Heterozygous mutations in the EMX2 locus are reported to give rise to schizencephaly. However, the comprehensive identification of causative genetic loci is precluded by a lack of large pedigrees and genome-wide linkage(More)
Reelin is an extracellular matrix-associated protein important in the regulation of neuronal migration during cerebral cortical development. Point mutations in the RELN gene have been shown to cause an autosomal recessive human brain malformation termed lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia (LCH). Recent work has raised the possibility that reelin may(More)
C ohen syndrome (COH1: MIM 216550) is an autosomal recessive disorder, first described in 1973. 1 Cardinal clinical features of Cohen syndrome include micro-cephaly, non-progressive mental retardation, characteristic facial features, neutropenia, and ophthalmologic findings. 2 It is overrepresented in Finland, though cases have been reported worldwide. The(More)
BACKGROUND Nonprogressive cerebellar ataxias are characterized by a persistent, nonprogressive ataxia associated with cognitive impairment. Cerebellar hypoplasia on imaging is variable but is not predictive of the degree of ataxia or cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE To describe a family with a nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia associated with cognitive and(More)