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Inhibitory molecules associated with myelin and the glial scar limit axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying signaling mechanisms of regeneration inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that suppressing the kinase function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocks the activities of both myelin(More)
The presence of Nogo axon regeneration inhibitory molecules in the central nervous system (CNS) and the counteracting effect of IN-1 antibodies have been widely reported. In this study, we examined the effect of IN-1-producing hybridoma cells on axon regeneration in adult rodent retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after various types of optic nerve (ON) injury,(More)
At a certain point in development, axons in the mammalian central nervous system lose their ability to regenerate after injury. Using the optic nerve model, we show that this growth failure coincides with two developmental events: the loss of Bcl-2 expression by neurons and the maturation of astrocytes. Before postnatal day 4, when astrocytes are immature,(More)
PURPOSE Retinal Müller glia in higher vertebrates have been reported to possess progenitor cell properties and the ability to generate new neurons after injury. This study was conducted to determine the signals that can activate this dormant capacity of Müller glia in adult mice, by studying their behavior during glutamate stimulation. METHODS Various(More)
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) represent a major barrier to regenerating axons in the central nervous system (CNS), but the structural diversity of their polysaccharides has hampered efforts to dissect the structure-activity relationships underlying their physiological activity. By taking advantage of our ability to chemically synthesize specific(More)
PURPOSE To characterize a glaucoma model of mice, the authors adopted and modified a method of inducing the chronic elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) by anterior chamber injection of polystyrene microbeads. METHODS Chronic elevation of IOP was induced unilaterally in adult C57BL/6J mice by injecting polystyrene microbeads to the anterior chamber.(More)
PURPOSE To characterize the reactions of retinal glial cells (astrocytes and Müller cells) to retinal injury in mice that lack glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin (GFAP-/-Vim-/-) and to determine the role of glial cells in retinal detachment (RD)-induced photoreceptor degeneration. METHODS RD was induced by subretinal injection of sodium(More)
BACKGROUND In a previous study, we demonstrated that ephrin-A2 and -A3 negatively regulate the growth of neural progenitor cells in the central nervous system. Adult mice deficient in ephrin-A2 and -A3 (A2(-/-)A3(-/-)) displayed active ongoing neurogenesis throughout the brain, and mice deficient in ephrin-A3 alone showed increased proliferation of ciliary(More)
The ciliary epithelium (CE) of adult mammals has been reported to provide a source of retinal stem cells (RSCs) that can give rise to all retinal cell types in vitro. A recent study, however, suggests that CE-derived cells possess properties of pigmented ciliary epithelial cells and display little neurogenic potential. Here we show that the neurogenic(More)
PURPOSE To characterize the microbead-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) mouse model and investigate its potential use for preclinical screening and evaluation of ocular hypotensive agents, we tested the model's responses to major antiglaucoma drugs. METHODS Adult C57BL/6J mice were induced to develop OHT unilaterally by intracameral injection of(More)