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This study aimed to determine the diagnostic relevance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pleural fluid and serum of patients with pleural effusions of different aetiology. VEGF was quantified in the pleural effusion fluid and serum of 96 patients with malignancies (58 lung cancers (CA) and 38 tumours with secondaries to the lung (TM)), 45(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the temporal progression of the clinical, radiological, and virological changes in a community outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS We followed up 75 patients for 3 weeks managed with a standard treatment protocol of ribavirin and corticosteroids, and assessed the pattern of clinical disease, viral load,(More)
BACKGROUND Host genetic factors are important determinants in tuberculosis (TB). The SLC11A1 (or NRAMP1) gene has been studied extensively for genetic association with TB, but with inconsistent findings. In addition, no study has yet looked into the effect of sex and age on the relationship between SLC11A1 polymorphisms and TB. METHODS A case-control(More)
Pleural effusions can be caused by highly different underlying diseases and are characterized by complex interactions of various local and circulating cells as well as numerous soluble parameters like interleukins (IL). Knowledge about this complex network could help to indicate underlying disease. Therefore, we have investigated immunoreactive(More)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly infectious respiratory infection with a high mortality. The duration of infectivity is unknown. The RT-PCR positivity for SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was followed in 45 virologically confirmed SARS patients. Serial RT-PCRs for SARS-CoV were performed in the nasopharyngeal aspirate, stool and(More)
Paradoxical deterioration during antituberculosis therapy, defined as the clinical or radiological worsening of pre-existing tuberculous lesions or the development of new lesions in a patient who initially improves, remains a diagnostic dilemma. Although different clinical presentations of paradoxical response have been described, a systematic analysis of(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical response of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) to a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir and ribavirin was examined after establishing the in vitro antiviral susceptibility of the SARS associated coronavirus to a panel of antiviral agents. METHODS The in vitro susceptibility of the prototype of SARS associated(More)
OBJECTIVE Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) have been found in high concentrations in pleural effusions. Because MMP and TIMP may play a part in the causation of the fibrosis seen in tuberculous (TB) pleuritis their occurrence was examined. DESIGN Pleural effusion fluid and plasma concentrations of MMP-1,(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the possible benefits and adverse effects of the addition of lopinavir/ritonavir to a standard treatment protocol for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome. DESIGN Retrospective matched cohort study. SETTING Four acute regional hospitals in Hong Kong. PATIENTS AND METHODS Seventy-five patients with severe acute(More)
OBJECTIVES To study the utilization of public health care by advanced cancer patients in their last 6 months of life and their end-of-life process within the last 2 weeks of life. METHODS This was a retrospective study on 494 cancer deaths from four public hospitals in 2005. This sample was selected from all in-patient cancer deaths by the ratio of one in(More)