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We studied seasonal and between-tree variation in the composition and content of total and individual low-molecular-weight phenolics (LMWP) in leaves of mountain birch trees (Betula pubescens ssp.tortuosa). The major phenolic compounds were chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-(5-acetyl)-L-rhamnopyranoside, and(More)
This paper introduces a framework for a highly constrained sports scheduling problem which is modeled from the requirements of various professional sports leagues. We define a sports scheduling problem, introduce the necessary terminology and detail the constraints of the problem. A set of artificial and real-world instances derived from the actual problems(More)
Generating a schedule for a professional sports league is an extremely demanding task. Good schedules have many benefits for the league, such as higher incomes, lower costs and more interesting and fairer seasons. This paper presents a successful way to schedule the Finnish major ice hockey league. The method is a combination of local search heuristics and(More)
Generating a schedule for a professional sports league is an extremely demanding task. Good schedules have many benefits for the league, for example higher incomes, lower costs and more interesting and fairer seasons. This paper presents a successful solution method to schedule the Finnish 1st division ice hockey league. The solution method is an improved(More)
Good rosters have many benefits for an organization, such as lower costs, more effective utilization of resources and fairer workloads. This paper introduces the person-based multitask shift generation problem with breaks. The problem is to construct a set of shifts such that the staff demand at each timeslot is covered as well as possible. A set of(More)
Workforce scheduling has become increasingly important for both the public sector and private companies. Good rosters have many benefits for an organization, such as lower costs, more effective utilization of resources and fairer workloads and distribution of shifts. This paper presents a successful way to roster nurses in an intensive-care unit in a(More)