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We studied seasonal and between-tree variation in the composition and content of total and individual low-molecular-weight phenolics (LMWP) in leaves of mountain birch trees (Betula pubescens ssp.tortuosa). The major phenolic compounds were chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-(5-acetyl)-L-rhamnopyranoside, and(More)
We present the progress on the benchmarking project for high school timetabling that was introduced at PATAT 2008. In particular, we announce the High School Timetabling Archive XHSTT-2011 with 21 instances from 8 countries and an evaluator capable of checking the syntax of instances and evaluating the solutions.
Generating a schedule for a professional sports league is an extremely demanding task. Good schedules have many benefits for the league, such as higher incomes, lower costs and more interesting and fairer seasons. This paper presents a successful way to schedule the Finnish major ice hockey league. The method is a combination of local search heuristics and(More)
Generating a schedule for a professional sports league is an extremely demanding task. Good schedules have many benefits for the league, for example higher incomes, lower costs and more interesting and fairer seasons. This paper presents a successful solution method to schedule the Finnish 1st division ice hockey league. The solution method is an improved(More)
Good rosters have many benefits for an organization, such as lower costs, more effective utilization of resources and fairer workloads. This paper introduces the person-based multitask shift generation problem with breaks. The problem is to construct a set of shifts such that the staff demand at each timeslot is covered as well as possible. A set of(More)
Preface Faced with insufficient performance of traditional computational methods on demanding real-world problems, computer scientists have decades ago started designing a novel class of problem solving techniques inspired by biological phenomena, such as collaboration and competition among individuals in a struggle for limited resources, recombination and(More)
Workforce scheduling has become increasingly important for both the public sector and private companies. Optimized shifts and rosters lower costs, utilize resources more effectively and ensure fairer workloads and distribution of shifts. This paper presents our work with workforce scheduling in bus transit companies. We present the workforce scheduling(More)