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Small, compact genomes of ultrasmall unicellular algae provide information on the basic and essential genes that support the lives of photosynthetic eukaryotes, including higher plants. Here we report the 16,520,305-base-pair sequence of the 20 chromosomes of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D as the first complete algal genome. We(More)
The rice species Oryza sativa is considered to be a model plant because of its small genome size, extensive genetic map, relative ease of transformation and synteny with other cereal crops. Here we report the essentially complete sequence of chromosome 1, the longest chromosome in the rice genome. We summarize characteristics of the chromosome structure and(More)
BACKGROUND All previously reported eukaryotic nuclear genome sequences have been incomplete, especially in highly repeated units and chromosomal ends. Because repetitive DNA is important for many aspects of biology, complete chromosomal structures are fundamental for understanding eukaryotic cells. Our earlier, nearly complete genome sequence of the(More)
Plastid DNA is a circular molecule of 120-150 kbp, which is organized into a protein-DNA complex called a nucleoid. Although various plastids other than chloroplasts exist, such as etioplasts, amyloplasts and chromoplasts, it is not easy to observe plastid nucleoids within the cells of many non-green tissues. The PEND (plastid envelope DNA-binding) protein(More)
Plastid envelope DNA-binding protein (PEND) is a DNA-binding protein with a chloroplast basic region-zipper domain at its N-terminus and a transmembrane domain at its C-terminus. The localization of PEND to the inner envelope membrane was demonstrated in a targeting experiment using isolated membranes and green fluorescent protein-tagged fusion proteins. An(More)
The phylogenetic positions of bryophytes and charophytes, together with their genome features, are important for understanding early land plant evolution. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence (105,340 bp) of the circular-mapping mitochondrial DNA of the moss Physcomitrella patens. Available evidence suggests that the multipartite structure of the(More)
The plastid is a semiautonomous organelle essential in photosynthesis and other metabolic activities of plants and algae. Plastid DNA is organized into the nucleoid with various proteins and RNA, and the nucleoid is subject to dynamic changes during the development of plant cells. Characterization of the major DNA-binding proteins of nucleoids revealed(More)
Diverse microorganisms are living as endophytes in plant tissues and as epiphytes on plant surfaces in nature. Questions about driving forces shaping the microbial community associated with plants remain unanswered. Because legumes developed systems to attain endosymbioses with rhizobia as well as mycorrhizae during their evolution, the above questions can(More)
The unicellular rhodophyte Cyanidioschyzon merolae, having a single plastid and a single mitochondrion, is suitable for the analysis of the cell cycle involving the division of organelles. In conventional methods of synchronous culture of algae, light/dark cycles have been used as signals for synchronization, and the gene expression promoted by light is not(More)
DNA polymerase gamma, a mitochondrial replication enzyme of yeasts and animals, is not present in photosynthetic eukaryotes. Recently, DNA polymerases with distant homology to bacterial DNA polymerase I were reported in rice, Arabidopsis, and tobacco, and they were localized to both plastids and mitochondria. We call them plant organellar DNA polymerases(More)