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The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is frequently activated in human cancers, and several agents targeting this pathway including PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors have recently entered clinical trials. One question is whether the efficacy of a PI3K pathway inhibitor can be predicted based on the activation status of pathway(More)
To estimate the replication of the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM), or tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), HTLV-I DNA integrated into lymphocyte genomes was analyzed by Southern blot hybridization. HTLV-I DNA was detected in 125 (82%) of 153 patients and most showed random integration. This(More)
Breast cancer cells are known to express various proteolytic enzymes, which make them invasive and favour their dissemination to distant sites. However, it is unclear whether breast cancer cells have the ability to produce polymorphonuclear leucocyte elastase (PMN-E). We measured immunoreactive (ir) PMN-E content in the conditioned medium of two breast(More)
To investigate what kind of genetic instability plays important roles in lung carcinogenesis, we analyzed micro- and minisatellite instability, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and chromosome instability in 55 cases of lung cancer, including, 10 squamous cell, 5 large cell, and 3 small cell carcinomas, and 37 adenocarcinomas. Analysis of minisatellite(More)
Plasminogen activator (PA) is a serine protease existing in two forms known as tissue-type (t-PA) and urokinase-type (u-PA). To examine whether PA is related to the postoperative clinical course of human breast cancer, total PA activity, t-PA activity, u-PA activity, and immunoreactive t-PA were determined in tissue extracts from 144 breast cancer(More)
Plasminogen activator (PA) is a serine protease which exists in two forms: tissue-type (t-PA) and urokinase-type (u-PA). The total PA activity was measured in tumour extracts of 235 breast cancer patients who were followed for a median of 8.5 years after surgery. Patients were initially divided into three groups with low (< 60 units mg-1 protein),(More)
The carcinogens in cigarette smoke are distinct from asbestos. However, an understanding of their differential effects on lung adenocarcinoma development remains elusive. We investigated loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and the p53 mutation in 132 lung adenocarcinomas, for which asbestos body burden (AB; in numbers per gram of dry lung) was measured using(More)
A hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, LMH, has been established from a hepatocellular carcinoma induced in a male leghorn chicken by dieth-ylnitrosamine. The cell line is characterized by well-differentiated mor phological and biochemical features including the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and canalicular ATPase activities and triploid karyotype with(More)
A subset of lung adenocarcinomas harboring an EML4-ALK fusion gene resulting in dominant oncogenic activity has emerged as a target for specific therapy. EML4-ALK fusion confers a characteristic histology and is detected more frequently in never or light smokers and younger patients. To gain insights into etiology and carcinogenic mechanisms we conducted(More)
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