Kimberly W. Black

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Calcium is essential for normal cellular function. However, increases in cell calcium are also involved in cellular dysfunction and death by activating destructive enzymatic processes such as proteases, nucleases, and lipases. Since ionized hypocalcemia is common during sepsis, calcium is often administered in an attempt to normalize circulating levels.(More)
To determine whether the calcium-magnesium-parathyroid hormone-calcitriol (vitamin D) axis responds appropriately to the hypocalcemia that routinely follows initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), we measured blood ionized calcium (CaI), total calcium (CaT), total magnesium (MgT), ultrafilterable magnesium (MgI), total protein, intact parathyroid(More)
OBJECTIVES Protein digestion generates many peptides in the gut lumen. Some of these peptides possess biological effects when tested using in vitro systems. It is clear that dipeptides and tripeptides can be absorbed intact from the gastrointestinal tract. However, the fate of larger peptides and small proteins remains unclear. Equally unclear are the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether free intracellular calcium is increased during human bacterial sepsis. DESIGN Prospective controlled study of lymphocyte free intracellular calcium concentrations from patients with sepsis compared with critically ill nonseptic patients and healthy subjects. SETTING A large multidisciplinary ICU of a university hospital.(More)
Acute renal failure is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients and frequently results from vasoconstrictive ischemic injury to the kidney. Protein and amino acids can vasodilate renal blood vessels. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that enteral feeding could prevent renal ischemic injury using an experimental model in which renal(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the accuracy of a new, portable battery-powered blood gas analyzer when used by nonlaboratory-trained clinicians in the critical care setting. DESIGN Prospective analysis of blood samples from critically ill patients. SETTING Large tertiary critical care unit. PATIENTS Heterogeneous group of medical and surgical critically ill(More)
For patients first presenting with a non-affective psychotic disorder, the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP; the time between the onset of positive psychotic symptoms and the initiation of appropriate treatment) varies widely, from a few weeks to several years. A number of studies report that a longer DUP is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. We(More)
Liver injury is common in patients following hemorrhage and sepsis. There are multiple etiologies for this liver injury which involve both decreased nutrient blood flow and direct cellular injury. Enteral nutrients vasodilate gut blood vessels and increase blood flow to the intestines and liver. Since enteral nutrients vasodilate gut blood vessels, we(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of immediate vs. delayed (72 hrs) postoperative enteral feeding on weight loss and wound healing after experimental abdominal surgery. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING Laboratory of a large university-affiliated medical school. SUBJECTS Seventeen male Sprague-Dawley rats, each weighing 350 to(More)
Early enteral feeding after injury is important for maintenance of gut integrity. However, enteral nutrients are frequently administered at low rates because of decreased gastrointestinal motility. These low rates are said to "maintain the gut." This study was performed to evaluate the effect of rate of enteral nutrient delivery on gut mass. Six male(More)