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A sample of 253 children of alcoholics (COAs) and 237 children of nonalcoholics (non-COAs) were compared on alcohol and drug use, psychopathology, cognitive ability, and personality. COAs reported more alcohol and drug problems, stronger alcohol expectancies, higher levels of behavioral undercontrol and neuroticism, and more psychiatric distress in relation(More)
The relations among gender, self-esteem, and DSM-III alcohol use disorder diagnoses were examined in a sample of 217 men and 240 women evaluated at four annual assessments over the college years. The results support clinical observations that low self-esteem plays a particularly important etiological role in alcohol problems in women relative to men. Women(More)
This review explores gender differences in relapse and characteristics of relapse events in alcohol and substance use. For alcohol, relapse rates were similar across gender. Although negative mood, childhood sexual abuse, alcohol-related self-efficacy, and poorer coping strategies predicted alcohol relapse, gender did not moderate these effects. Gender did(More)
Substantial numbers of mental health clients do not return following their initial therapy visits or drop out of treatment prematurely. Two general classes of strategies designed to reduce premature attrition and enhance treatment participation are reviewed. Research on psychotherapy preparatory techniques (role induction, vicarious therapy pretraining, and(More)
Problem-drinking women (N = 144) without histories of severe physical dependence on alcohol received drinking-reduction training and were assigned to receive (or not receive) 2 treatment enhancements: life-skills training and booster sessions. The design resulted in 4 treatment conditions: drinking-reduction treatment (DRT) plus life-skills training, DRT(More)
In this study, 126 clients (87 men, 39 women) entering outpatient alcoholism treatment were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 preparatory conditions: a role induction (RI) session, a motivational interview (MI) session, or a no-preparatory session control group (CG). Clients assigned to the MI preparatory condition attended more treatment sessions and had fewer(More)
Individuals at high risk for alcoholism have been hypothesized to acquire alcoholic characteristics more rapidly than those at low risk. Two studies examined reactivity to alcohol cues, a phenomenon linked to craving for alcohol in clinical alcoholics, and ad lib drinking behavior in young men at varying risk for alcoholism. In Study 1, subjects exhibited(More)
Recent data suggest that most people experiencing alcohol problems have problems of mild to moderate severity. Relative to alcoholics, these drinkers have a shorter problem-drinking history, greater social and economic stability, and greater personal resources. This article describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment approach designed specifically for(More)