Kimberly P Schmitt

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The human apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic peptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) family of proteins (A3A-H) are known to restrict various retroviruses and retroelements, but the full complement of rhesus macaque A3 proteins remains unclear. We report the isolation and characterization of the hA3A homologue from rhesus macaques (rhA3A) and show that the(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses several proteins that manipulate normal cellular functions, including cellular transcription, apoptosis, immune response, and cell cycle control. The IE2 gene, which is expressed from the HCMV major immediate-early (MIE) promoter, encodes the IE86 protein. IE86 is a multifunctional protein that is essential for viral(More)
The Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to enhance virion release from certain cell types. To accomplish this function, Vpu interacts with the restriction factor known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2)/tetherin. In this study, we analyzed whether the Vpu protein is associated with microdomains known as lipid or(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes for a Vpu protein, which interacts with CD4 resulting in its degradation. In this study, we examined the role of the 10 amino acids within the predicted second alpha-helical domain of the subtype B Vpu cytoplasmic tail in CD4 down-modulation using a VpuEGFP reporter system. Our findings indicate that the(More)
The Vif protein of primate lentiviruses interacts with APOBEC3 proteins, which results in shunting of the APOBEC3-Vif complex to the proteosome for degradation. Using the simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/macaque model, we compared the replication and pathogenicity of SHIVs that express a Vif protein in which the entire SLQYLA (SHIV(Vif5A)) or HCCH(More)
We previously demonstrated that HIV replication is concentrated in lymph node B cell follicles during chronic infection and that HIV-specific CTL fail to accumulate in large numbers at those sites. It is unknown whether these observations can be generalized to other secondary lymphoid tissues or whether virus compartmentalization occurs in the absence of(More)
The simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/macaque model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has become a useful tool to assess the role of accessory genes in lentiviral pathogenesis. In this study, we introduced two amino acid changes in the highly conserved SLQYLA domain (to AAQYLA) of the SIV Vif protein. The resulting virus, SHIV(VifAAQYLA), was(More)
The functions of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IE86 protein are paradoxical, as it can both activate and repress viral gene expression through interaction with the promoter region. Although the mechanism for these functions is not clearly defined, it appears that a combination of direct DNA binding and protein-protein interactions is involved. Multiple(More)
Previously, we showed that the Vpu protein from HIV-1 subtype C is more efficiently transported to the cell surface than the well studied subtype B Vpu (Pacyniak et al., 2005) and that a SHIV expressing the subtype C Vpu exhibited a decreased rate of CD4+ T cell loss following inoculation in macaques (Hill et al., 2008). In this study, we examined the role(More)
The DREAM complex is an important regulator of mitotic gene expression during the cell cycle. Here we report that inactivation of LIN9, a subunit of DREAM, results in premature senescence, which can be overcome by the SV40 large T (LT) antigen. Together with the observation that p16(INK4a) and p21(Waf1) are upregulated upon loss of LIN9, these results(More)