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Recent evidence suggests that projection neurons and interneurons of the cerebral cortex are generally derived from distinct proliferative zones. Cortical projection neurons originate from the cortical ventricular zone (VZ), and then migrate radially into the cortical mantle, whereas most cortical interneurons originate from the basal telencephalon and(More)
The circadian system has pronounced influence on learning and memory, manifesting as marked changes in memory acquisition and recall across the day. From a mechanistic perspective, the majority of studies have investigated mammalian hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, as this system is highly tractable. The hippocampus plays a major role in learning(More)
Reproductive success is maximized when female sexual motivation and behavior coincide with the time of optimal fertility. Both processes depend upon coordinated hormonal events, beginning with signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Two neuropeptidergic systems that lie upstream of GnRH, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH;(More)
Throughout most of the ovulatory cycle, estrogen negative feedback restrains the GnRH neuronal system. Just before ovulation, however, estrogen negative feedback is removed to permit stimulation of the preovulatory GnRH/LH surge (positive feedback) by the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The mammalian ortholog of avian(More)
Aggressive interactions lead to changes in both future behavior and circulating testosterone (T) concentrations in animals across taxa. The specific neural circuitry and neurochemical systems by which these encounters alter neuroendocrine functioning are not well understood. Neurons expressing the inhibitory and stimulatory neuropeptides, RFamide-related(More)
Repeated social subjugation in early puberty lowers testosterone levels. We used hamsters to investigate the effects of social subjugation on male sexual behavior and metabolic activity within neural systems controlling social and motivational behaviors. Subjugated animals were exposed daily to aggressive adult males in early puberty for postnatal days 28(More)
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