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BACKGROUND Lumbar surgery and epidural injections for spinal stenosis are the most commonly performed interventions in the United States. However, there is only moderate evidence to the effectiveness(More)
BACKGROUND The pathophysiology of lumbar radicular pain is a subject of ongoing research. The prevalence of sciatica or radiculitis ranges from 1.2% to 43%. Epidural injections are one of the most(More)
BACKGROUND Speculated causes of post lumbar surgery syndrome include epidural fibrosis, acquired stenosis, and facet joint pain among other causes. Even though fluoroscopically directed caudal(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of persistent low back pain with the involvement of lumbar facet or zygapophysial joints has been described in controlled studies as varying from 15% to 45% based on the(More)