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Recent work indicates a general architecture for proteins in which sparse networks of physically contiguous and coevolving amino acids underlie basic aspects of structure and function. These networks, termed sectors, are spatially organized such that active sites are linked to many surface sites distributed throughout the structure. Using the metabolic(More)
The ccr gene, encoding crotonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reductase (CCR), was cloned from Streptomyces cinnamonensis C730.1 and shown to encode a protein with 90% amino acid sequence identity to the CCRs of Streptomyces collinus and Streptomyces coelicolor. A ccr-disrupted mutant, S. cinnamonensis L1, was constructed by inserting the hyg resistance gene into a(More)
The Streptomyces venezuelae pikD gene from the pikromycin biosynthetic cluster was analyzed, and its deduced product (PikD) was found to have amino acid sequence homology with a small family of bacterial regulatory proteins. Database comparisons revealed two hypothetical domains, including an N-terminal triphosphate-binding domain and a C-terminal(More)
Crotonyl-CoA reductase (CCR), which catalyzes the reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA, is common to most streptomycetes and appears to be inducible by either lysine or its catabolites in Streptomyces cinnamonensis grown in chemically defined medium. A major role of CCR in providing butyryl-CoA from acetate for monensin A biosynthesis has been(More)
The ratio of the major monensin analogs produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis is dependent upon the relative levels of the biosynthetic precursors methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) (monensin A and monensin B) and ethylmalonyl-CoA (monensin A). The meaA gene of this organism was cloned and sequenced and was shown to encode a putative 74-kDa protein with(More)
ccr encoding crotonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reductase (CCR), which catalyzes the conversion of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA in the presence of NADPH, was previously cloned from Streptomyces collinus. We now report that a complete open reading frame, designated meaA, is located downstream from ccr. The predicted gene product showed 35% identity with(More)
The cloning, using a PCR approach, of genes from both Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces avermitilis encoding an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (AcdH), putatively involved in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids, is reported. The deduced amino acid sequences of both genes have a high similarity to prokaryotic and eukaryotic short-chain acyl-CoA(More)
Fatty-acid biosynthesis by a branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (bkd) mutant of Streptomyces avermitilis was analyzed. This mutant is unable to produce the appropriate precursors of branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) biosynthesis, but unlike the comparable Bacillus subtilis mutant, was shown not to have an obligate growth requirement for these(More)
A crotonyl-CoA reductase (EC, acyl-CoA:NADP+ trans-2-oxidoreductase) catalyzing the conversion of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA has been purified and characterized from Streptomyces collinus. This enzyme, a dimer with subunits of identical mass (48 kDa), exhibits a Km = 18 microM for crotonyl-CoA and 15 microM for NADPH. The enzyme was unable to(More)
The new β 2 Adrenoceptor (β 2 AR) crystal structures provide a high-resolution snapshot of receptor interactions with two particular partial inverse agonists, (−)-carazolol and timolol. However, both experimental and computational studies of GPCR structure are significantly complicated by the existence of multiple conformational states coupled to ligand(More)