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Cross-cultural studies of color naming show that basic terms are universally the most frequently used to name colors. However, such basic color terms are always used in the context of larger linguistic systems when specii c properties of color experience are described. To investigate naturalistic naming behaviors, we examined the use of modii ers in English(More)
While recognizing the theoretical importance of context, current research has treated naming as though semantic meaning were invariant and the same mapping of category exemplars and names should exist across experimental contexts. An assumed symmetry or bidirectionality in naming behavior has been implicit in the interchangeable use of tasks that ask(More)
Traditional color vision theory posits that three types of retinal photopigments transduce light into a trivariate neural color code, thereby explaining color-matching behaviors. This principle of trichromacy is in need of reexamination in view of molecular genetics results suggesting that a substantial percentage of women possess more than three classes of(More)
The evolution of color categorization is investigated using computer simulations of agent population categorization games. Various realistic observer types are implemented based on Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test human performance data from normal and anomalous trichromats, dichromats, and humans with four retinal photopigments. Results show that (i) a(More)
Specifying the factors that contribute to the universality of color categorization across individuals and cultures is a longstanding and still controversial issue in psychology, linguistics, and anthropology. This article approaches this issue through the simulated evolution of color lexicons. It is shown that the combination of a minimal perceptual(More)
We report a search for group differences in color experience between male and female subjects, focusing on the relative prominence of the axes of color space. Dissim-ilarity data were collected in the form of triadic (odd-one-out) judgments, made with the caps of the D-15 color deficiency test, with lighting conditions controlled. Multidi-mensional scaling(More)
Investigating the interactions between universal and culturally specific influences on color categorization across individuals and cultures has proven to be a challenge for human color categorization and naming research. The present article simulates the evolution of color lexicons to evaluate the role of two realistic constraints found in the human(More)
The accepted model of color naming postulates that 11 “basic” color terms representing 11 common perceptual experiences show increased processing salience due to a theorized linkage between perception, visual neurophysiology, and cognition. We tested this theory, originally proposed by Berlin and Kay in 1969. Experiment 1 tested salience by comparing(More)