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The evolution of color categorization is investigated using computer simulations of agent population categorization games. Various realistic observer types are implemented based on Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test human performance data from normal and anomalous trichromats, dichromats, and humans with four retinal photopigments. Results show that (i) a(More)
Cross-cultural studies of color naming show that basic terms are universally the most frequently used to name colors. However, such basic color terms are always used in the context of larger linguistic systems when specii c properties of color experience are described. To investigate naturalistic naming behaviors, we examined the use of modii ers in English(More)
Traditional color vision theory posits that three types of retinal photopigments transduce light into a trivariate neural color code, thereby explaining color-matching behaviors. This principle of trichromacy is in need of reexamination in view of molecular genetics results suggesting that a substantial percentage of women possess more than three classes of(More)
Investigating the interactions between universal and culturally specific influences on color categorization across individuals and cultures has proven to be a challenge for human color categorization and naming research. The present article simulates the evolution of color lexicons to evaluate the role of two realistic constraints found in the human(More)
The evolution of color categorization is investigated using artificial agent population categorization games, by modeling observer types using Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test performance to capture human processing constraints on color categorization. Homogeneous populations of both normal and dichromat agents are separately examined. Both types of(More)
We report a search for group differences in color experience between male and female subjects, focusing on the relative prominence of the axes of color space. Dissim-ilarity data were collected in the form of triadic (odd-one-out) judgments, made with the caps of the D-15 color deficiency test, with lighting conditions controlled. Multidi-mensional scaling(More)
Specifying the factors that contribute to the universality of color categorization across individuals and cultures is a longstanding and still controversial issue in psychology, linguistics, and anthropology. This article approaches this issue through the simulated evolution of color lexicons. It is shown that the combination of a minimal perceptual(More)
A metamemory paradigm involving the use of near-threshold visual priming is developed in which a brief flash of a previously nonrecalled answer occurs, and then the person attempts to recall the answer and/or make feeling-of-knowing judgments. The major new finding is that the feeling of knowing did not detect perceptual input from a near-threshold prime(More)
Methods of ranking individuals in a dominance hierarchy that use transitivity of relationships may obscure irregularities. Furthermore, these methods use only a small proportion of the information available from dominance encounters. This paper presents an intuitively appealing and easily implemented alternative to existing methods for ordering dominance(More)