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OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to model jointly the incidence rates of six smoking related cancers in the Yorkshire region of England, to explore the patterns of spatial correlation amongst them, and to estimate the relative weight of smoking and other shared risk factors for the relevant disease sites, both before and after adjustment for(More)
OBJECTIVES Systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational cohort studies. To quantify the increased risk smokers have of experiencing a delayed and/or non-union in fractures, spinal fusion, osteotomy, arthrodesis or established non-unions. SETTING Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Excerpta Medica database(More)
STUDY DESIGN Narrative review. OBJECTIVE The study aims to critically review the outcomes associated with the surgical repair or conservative management of spondylolysis in athletes. METHODS The English literature listed in MEDLINE/PubMed was reviewed to identify related articles using the term "spondylolysis AND athlete." The criteria for studies to be(More)
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