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Intracerebral infection of susceptible strains of mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces a biphasic disease characterized by acute polioencephalitis followed by chronic demyelination and viral persistence in the spinal cord white matter. There has been limited study of soluble mediators responsible for the initial recruitment of(More)
Following traumatic injury to the spinal cord, hematogenous inflammatory cells including neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes infiltrate the lesion in a distinct temporal sequence. To examine potential mechanisms for their recruitment, we measured chemokine mRNAs in the contused rat spinal cord, using specific and sensitive reverse transcriptase(More)
EDI-immunoreactive macrophages, absent from the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) of normal rats, appear in these ganglia within 48h after postganglionic axotomy. Further, resident macrophages show changes after axotomy. Since chemokines function as chemoattractants and activators of leukocytes, the effects of axotomy on chemokine expression in the SCG were(More)
The role of focal brain damage as a trigger for autoimmune inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear. In this study we examine mechanisms by which experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is enhanced by focal brain damage. EAE was produced in Lewis rats by footpad inoculation; focal brain damage, in the form of a cortical cryolesion(More)
Recruitment of inflammatory cells is of critical importance in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated demyelinating diseases in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Evidence is increasing that chemokines might play a key role in this process, since they promote leukocyte entry into the nervous system during immune-mediated inflammation. In the present study we(More)
Tissue T cells encounter Ag in a distinct microenvironment, where they are embedded in the interstitial extracellular matrix (ECM). In contrast, while naive T cells are exposed to Ag in the lymph node, immediately after naive T cells are activated they must extravasate into the ECM to function effectively. Because integrin-mediated adhesion to the ECM(More)
Several proteins are known to modulate cholesterol crystallization. We recently demonstrated that haptoglobin has cholesterol crystallization promoting activity. However, this effect is still not well understood mechanistically. The current study examined the distribution of haptoglobin compared to apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) to micelles, vesicles and(More)
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