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The organs, tissues, and cells of the lymphoreticular system have received considerable attention as targets for chemicals causing adverse effects. A basic toxicological approach is described for assessing the risk of a chemical perturbing the immune system. CD-1 mice were exposed for 14 or 90 days to one of several chlorinated hydrocarbons:(More)
BACKGROUND Dysregulation of positive and negative selection, antigen presentation, or apoptosis in the thymus can lead to immunosuppression or autoimmunity. Diethylstilbestrol (DES), dexamethasone (DEX), cyclophosphamide (CPS), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are immunosuppressive chemicals that induce similar immunotoxic effects in the(More)
Chloral hydrate has been found in our drinking water supplies at levels up to 5 micrograms/1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional status of the immune system in random-bred CD-1 mice exposed to chloral hydrate for 14 and 90 days. Male mice, following 14 or 90 days of exposure to 1/10 and 1/100 the actual oral LD50, exhibited no(More)
Chloral hydrate has been found in our drinking water supplies at levels up to 5 micrograms/1. The purpose of this study was to evalute the acute and subchronic toxicology of chloral hydrate in the random-bred CD-1 mouse, to provide data for risk assessment. The acute oral LD50 of this compound was 1442 and 1265 mg/kg in male and female mice, respectively.(More)
D5 is a low-molecular-weight cyclic siloxane used for industrial and consumer product applications. The objective of the present study was to assess potential toxic and immunomodulatory consequences of inhalation exposure to D5. Male and female Fischer 344 rats (25/group) were exposed by whole body inhalation to 0, 10, 25, 75, or 160 ppm D5 6 h/day, 7(More)
This study evaluated the subchronic toxicity of selected halomethanes which are drinking water contaminants. The compounds studied were trichloromethane, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and tribromomethane. Subchronic 14-day gavage studies were performed with the use of doses encompassing one-tenth the LD50 for the compounds. A 90-day gavage(More)
We have previously reported that injection of ryanodine receptor agonists into mature bovine oocytes induces intracellular calcium release, indicative of the existence of ryanodine receptors. In this experiment, further evidence of the ryanodine receptor localization, and developmental regulation in bovine oocytes is presented. The possible physiological(More)
Previously, we have reported that thalidomide can modulate the immune responses in female B6C3F1 mice. Furthermore, thalidomide immunomodulation increased primary host resistance to intravenously infected Listeria monocytogenes. The present study was intended to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the enhanced host resistance to L. monocytogenes by focusing(More)
Studies showed that nicotine has a positive influence on symptoms of ulcerative colitis. In the present study, we explored the effect of nicotine treatment using different routes of administration in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis mouse model. We also investigated the effects of cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in the model. C57BL6 adult(More)
The purpose of these experiments was to determine the effect of electroporation of IP3 into the cytosol of murine secondary oocytes and evaluate any alterations in [Ca2+]i resulting from Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. In addition, we evaluated the effect of ethanol (ETOH) on the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Oocytes were loaded with(More)