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Normal aging in humans and rodents is accompanied by a progressive increase in adiposity. To investigate the role of hypothalamic neuronal circuits in this process, we used a Cre-lox strategy to create mice with specific and progressive degeneration of hypothalamic neurons that express agouti-related protein (Agrp) or proopiomelanocortin (Pomc),(More)
Studies in animals have documented that, compared with glucose, dietary fructose induces dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To assess the relative effects of these dietary sugars during sustained consumption in humans, overweight and obese subjects consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 weeks.(More)
Fructose consumption in the USA has increased over the past three decades. During this time, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome have also increased in prevalence. While diets high in fructose have been shown to promote insulin resistance and increase TAG concentrations in animals, there are insufficient data available regarding the(More)
Circulating leptin secreted from adipocytes is correlated with fat mass and plasma insulin concentrations in humans and rodents. Plasma leptin, insulin, and glucose decrease during fasting and increase after refeeding; however, the underlying mechanisms regulating the changes of leptin secretion are not known. To investigate the role of insulin-stimulated(More)
BACKGROUND Prospective studies in humans examining the effects of fructose consumption on biological markers associated with the development of metabolic syndrome are lacking. Therefore we investigated the relative effects of 10 wks of fructose or glucose consumption on plasma uric acid and RBP-4 concentrations, as well as liver enzyme (AST, ALT, and GGT)(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The results of short-term studies in humans suggest that, compared with glucose, acute consumption of fructose leads to increased postprandial energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation and decreased postprandial fat oxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the potential effects of increased fructose consumption(More)
OBJECTIVE The efficacy of liraglutide, a human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, to prevent or delay diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats, a model of polygenic obese type 2 diabetes, was investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS At 2 months of age, male rats were divided into three groups: control, food-restricted, and liraglutide. Animals received liraglutide(More)
BACKGROUND In preclinical studies, the combination of chronic stress and a high sugar/fat diet is a more potent driver of visceral adiposity than diet alone, a process mediated by peripheral neuropeptide Y (NPY). METHODS In a human model of chronic stress, we investigated whether the synergistic combination of highly palatable foods (HPF; high sugar/fat)(More)
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation has been reported to induce insulin resistance in animals and humans, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the direct effects of CLA on leptin and adiponectin secretion, two hormones with actions known to influence insulin sensitivity. Isolated rat adipocytes(More)
Glucose in the gut lumen activates gut endocrine cells to release 5-HT, glucagon-like peptide 1/2 (GLP-1/2), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), which act to change gastrointestinal function and regulate postprandial plasma glucose. There is evidence that both release and action of incretin hormones is reduced in type 2 diabetes (T2D).(More)