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Autoreactive memory T lymphocytes are implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here we demonstrate that disease-associated autoreactive T cells from patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mainly CD4+ CCR7- CD45RA- effector memory T cells (T(EM) cells) with elevated Kv1.3 potassium channel expression. In(More)
Studies in animals have documented that, compared with glucose, dietary fructose induces dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To assess the relative effects of these dietary sugars during sustained consumption in humans, overweight and obese subjects consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 weeks.(More)
Normal aging in humans and rodents is accompanied by a progressive increase in adiposity. To investigate the role of hypothalamic neuronal circuits in this process, we used a Cre-lox strategy to create mice with specific and progressive degeneration of hypothalamic neurons that express agouti-related protein (Agrp) or proopiomelanocortin (Pomc),(More)
CONTEXT The American Heart Association Nutrition Committee recommends women and men consume no more than 100 and 150 kcal of added sugar per day, respectively, whereas the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, suggests a maximal added sugar intake of 25% or less of total energy. OBJECTIVE To address this discrepancy, we compared the effects of consuming(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Bariatric surgery has been shown to reverse type 2 diabetes; however, mechanisms by which this occurs remain undefined. Ileal interposition (IT) is a surgical model that isolates the effects of increasing delivery of unabsorbed nutrients to the lower gastrointestinal tract. In this study we investigated effects of IT surgery on glucose(More)
Fructose consumption in the USA has increased over the past three decades. During this time, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome have also increased in prevalence. While diets high in fructose have been shown to promote insulin resistance and increase TAG concentrations in animals, there are insufficient data available regarding the(More)
Circulating leptin secreted from adipocytes is correlated with fat mass and plasma insulin concentrations in humans and rodents. Plasma leptin, insulin, and glucose decrease during fasting and increase after refeeding; however, the underlying mechanisms regulating the changes of leptin secretion are not known. To investigate the role of insulin-stimulated(More)
Evidence for regulation of circulating leptin by insulin is conflicting. Diabetes was induced in rats with streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) x 2 days) to examine the effect of insulin-deficient diabetes and insulin treatment on circulating leptin. After 12 wk, plasma leptin concentrations in untreated rats were all < 0.4 ng/ml versus 4.9 +/- 0.9(More)
Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for severe obesity, as in addition to dramatic weight loss, co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes are frequently resolved. Although altered gastrointestinal peptide hormone secretion and its relationship with post-surgical improvements in insulin sensitivity has been studied, much less is known about long-term(More)
OBJECTIVE Human adenovirus Ad-36 causes adiposity in animal models and enhances differentiation and lipid accumulation in human and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which may, in part, explain the adipogenic effect of Ad-36. We determined the consequences of Ad-36 infection on leptin and glucose metabolism in fat cells. DESIGN 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were used to(More)