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IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are potent inflammatory cytokines that contribute to a number of normal physiologic processes and to the development of a number of inflammatory diseases. Two IL-1R, the type I and type II receptors, have been identified. This work describes the derivation and characterization of mice deficient in expression of the type I IL-1R(More)
The signal-inducible phosphorylation of serines 32 and 36 of I kappa B alpha is critical in regulating the subsequent ubiquitination and proteolysis of I kappa B alpha, which then releases NF-kappa B to promote gene transcription. The multisubunit I kappa B kinase responsible for this phosphorylation contains two catalytic subunits, termed I kappa B kinase(More)
OBJECTIVE The transcription of several cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and enzymes involved in the inflammatory and destructive mechanisms of rheumatoid arthritis is dependent on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B). Because I kappa B kinase (IKK) is critical in transducing the signal-inducible activation of NF-kappa B, we examined whether the highly(More)
The recently described IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1R AcP) interacts with IL-1beta and the IL-1 type-IR (IL-1RI), but an essential requirement for IL-1R AcP in IL-1 signaling in vitro has not been established and its role in vivo has not been examined. In this study, IL-1R AcP-deficient mice and fibroblasts were produced and characterized. All IL-1 agonists(More)
The selectins are inducible adhesion molecules critically important for the inflammatory response. We investigate here the functional effects of three monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) raised against murine E-selectin (9A9, 10E6, and 10E9.6) on neutrophil recruitment in vivo, leukocyte rolling and circulating leukocyte concentrations in vivo, and adhesion of(More)
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes which hydrolyze the cyclic nucleotide second messengers, cAMP and cGMP. In leukocytes, PDEs are responsible for depletion of cAMP which broadly suppresses cell functions and cellular responses to many activation stimuli. PDE7A has been proposed to be essential for T lymphocyte activation based on its induction during(More)
The importance of endogenous interleukin 1 (IL-1) in resistance to Pneumocystis carinii infection was examined in a SCID mouse model. Naturally acquired pulmonary infection of P. carinii in SCID mice was completely cleared by reconstitution of the infected mice with immunocompetent spleen cells. IL-1 activity in the lung homogenate supernatant of these mice(More)
High numbers of large granular lymphocytes (LGL) accumulate in the livers and peritoneal cavities of mice during the course of viral infection. Accumulation of natural killer (NK) cells at day 3 postinfection (p.i.) was shown to be radiation-sensitive, implying that proliferation was required for this response. Accumulation occurred in splenectomized mice,(More)
CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 3 is a chemokine receptor implicated in recruiting cells, particularly eosinophils (EPhi), to the lung in episodes of allergic asthma. To investigate the efficacy of selective, small molecule antagonists of CCR3, we developed a murine model of EPhi recruitment to the lung. Murine eotaxin was delivered intranasally to mice that(More)
We have recently identified BMS-345541 (1) as a highly selective and potent inhibitor of IKK-2 (IC50 = 0.30 microM), which however was considerably less potent against IKK-1 (IC50 = 4.0 microM). In order to further explore the SAR around the imidazoquinoxaline tricyclic structure of 1, we prepared a series of tetracyclic analogues (7, 13, and 18). The(More)