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Opening and closing of a CFTR Cl(-) channel is controlled by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic regulatory (R) domain and by ATP binding, and likely hydrolysis, at its two nucleotide binding domains. Functional interactions between the R domain and the two nucleotide binding domains were probed by characterizing the gating of severed CFTR(More)
The molecular mechanism of ion channel gating remains unclear. Using approaches such as proline scanning mutagenesis and homology modeling, we localize the gate of the K(+) channels controlled by the (beta)gamma subunits of G proteins at the pore-lining bundle crossing of the second transmembrane (TM2) helices. We show that the flexibility afforded by a(More)
G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels, which are important regulators of membrane excitability both in heart and brain, appear to function as heteromultimers. GIRK1 is unique in the GIRK channel family in that although it is by itself inactive, it can associate with the other family members (GIRK2-GIRK5) to enhance their activity and alter(More)
K(ATP) channels are metabolic sensors and targets of potassium channel openers (KCO; e.g., diazoxide and pinacidil). They comprise four sulfonylurea receptors (SUR) and four potassium channel subunits (Kir6) and are critical in regulating insulin secretion. Different SUR subtypes (SUR1, SUR2A, SUR2B) largely determine the metabolic sensitivities and the(More)
In heart, G-protein-activated channels are complexes of two homologous proteins, GIRK1 and GIRK4. Expression of either protein alone results in barely active or non-active channels, making it difficult to assess the individual contribution of each subunit to the channel complex. The residue Phe137, located within the H5 region of GIRK1, is critical to the(More)
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), encoded by the gene mutated in cystic fibrosis patients, belongs to the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, but, unlike other members, functions as a chloride channel. CFTR is activated by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of multiple sites in its regulatory domain, and(More)
CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), the protein whose dysfunction causes cystic fibrosis, is a chloride ion channel whose gating is controlled by interactions of MgATP with CFTR's two cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains, but only after several serines in CFTR's regulatory (R) domain have been phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent(More)
Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is the most abundant phosphoinositide in the plasma membrane of cells and its interaction with many ion channel proteins has proven to be a critical factor enabling ion channel gating. All members of the inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channel family depend on PIP(2) for their activity, displaying distinct(More)
ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels comprise four pore-forming Kir6 and four regulatory sulphonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. SUR, an ATP-binding cassette protein, associates with Kir6 through its N-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD0). TMD0 connects to the core domain of SUR through a cytosolic linker (L0). The intrinsic gating of Kir6.2 is greatly(More)
Muscarinic potassium channels (KACh) are composed of two subunits, GIRK1 and GIRK4 (or CIR), and are directly gated by G proteins. We have identified a novel gating mechanism of KACh, independent of G-protein activation. This mechanism involved functional modification of KACh which required hydrolysis of physiological levels of intracellular ATP and was(More)