Learn More
Since their introduction, synthetic pyrethroid insecticides have generated regulatory concerns regarding their toxicity to fish and aquatic invertebrates. In this paper we assess the potential for risks to aquatic ecosystems in cotton-growing areas, focusing on cypermethrin as a suitable representative of the pyrethroid class and static water bodies (ponds(More)
Aquatic exposure arising from the use of pyrethroid insecticides on cotton in the United States was estimated as part of an extensive pyrethroid aquatic risk assessment. The exposure analysis was based on the standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tier II regulatory scenario for cotton, which assumes a 1-ha pond surrounded by 10 ha of treated crop,(More)
The use of no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) as a way of interpreting toxicology studies carries a number of problems, and the benchmark dose (BMD), or its lower confidence limit have been proposed as potential replacements. In practice, the theoretical advantages of the BMD approach are often outweighed by the practical disadvantages posed in a(More)
While toxicokinetics has become an integral part of pharmaceutical safety assessment over the last two decades, its use in the chemical industry is relatively new. However, it is recognised as a potentially important tool in human health risk assessment and recent initiatives have advocated greater application of toxicokinetics as part of an improved(More)
Estimates of potential aquatic exposure concentrations arising from the use of pyrethroid insecticides on cotton produced using conventional procedures outlined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pesticide Programs Environmental Fate and Effects Division seem unrealistically high. Accordingly, the assumptions inherent in the pesticide(More)
The pharmacokinetics and neurotoxicity of paraquat dichloride (PQ) were assessed following once weekly administration to C57BL/6J male mice by intraperitoneal injection for 1, 2 or 3 weeks at doses of 10, 15 or 25 mg/kg/week. Approximately 0.3% of the administered dose was taken up by the brain and was slowly eliminated, with a half-life of approximately 3(More)
BACKGROUND Due to recent advances in data storage and sharing for further data processing in predictive toxicology, there is an increasing need for flexible data representations, secure and consistent data curation and automated data quality checking. Toxicity prediction involves multidisciplinary data. There are hundreds of collections of chemical,(More)
Toxicokinetic (TK) information can substantially enhance the value of the data generated from toxicity testing, and is an integral part of pharmaceutical safety assessment. It is less widely used in the chemical, agrochemical and consumer products industries, but recognition of its value is growing, as reflected by increased reference to the use of TK(More)
Several investigations have reported that mice administered paraquat dichloride (PQ·Cl2) by intraperitoneal injection exhibit a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). In this study, male and female C57BL/6J mice were administered PQ·Cl2 in the diet at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, and 50ppm for a duration of 13weeks.(More)
Although regulatory agencies formally encourage the integration of all available data in chemical risk assessment, consistent implementation of this practice has been constrained by the lack of a clear, systematic method for doing so. In this paper, we describe a methodology for evaluating, classifying and integrating human and animal data into the risk(More)