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In this study, we evaluated baseline susceptibility to bevirimat (BVM), the first in a new class of antiretroviral agents, maturation inhibitors. We evaluated susceptibility to BVM by complete gag genotypic and phenotypic testing of 20 patient-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates and 20 site-directed mutants. We found that reduced BVM(More)
Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasing in resource-limited settings (RLS) and can successfully reduce HIV-related morbidity and mortality. However, virologic failure and development of viral drug resistance can result in reduced treatment options and disease progression. Additionally, transmission of resistant virus, and particularly(More)
There is an urgent need for low-cost assays for HIV-1 quantitation to ensure adequate follow-up of HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries. Two low-cost viral load assays are evaluated, a reverse transcriptase activity assay (ExavirLoad v2, Cavidi) and a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay (Generic HIV viral(More)
Due to high cost, availability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance testing in resource-poor settings is still limited. We therefore evaluated the usefulness of viral DNA extracted from either whole blood or dried blood spots (DBS). Samples were collected from 50 patients receiving therapy and 10 therapy-naïve patients.(More)
BACKGROUND Tenofovir (TDF) has replaced stavudine (d4T) as the preferred nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) in first-line regimens in South Africa, but limited information is available on the resistance patterns that develop after the introduction of TDF. This study investigated the antiretroviral drug resistance patterns in South African(More)
Genotypic assays are used often to guide clinicians in decisions concerning the treatment of patients. An optimized sequence-based genotypic assay was used to determine the whole protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) gene, including the gag cleavage site region and RNase H region. Since non-B subtypes are increasing in countries where subtype B was the(More)
In resource-limited settings (RLS), reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors form the backbone of first-line treatment regimens. We have developed a simplified HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping assay targeting the region of RT harboring all major RT inhibitor resistance mutation positions, thus providing all relevant susceptibility data for first-line failures,(More)
HIV-1 RNA viral load is the preferred tool to monitor virological failure during antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure. Timely detection of virological failure can reduce the prevalence and complexity of HIV-1 drug resistance. This field evaluation further characterizes a two-step approach to identify virological failure, as a measure of ART adherence, and(More)
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) genotypic resistance defined by K65R/N and/or K70E/Q/G occurs in 20% to 60% of individuals with virological failure (VF) on a WHO-recommended TDF-containing first-line regimen. However, the full spectrum of reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations selected in individuals with VF on such a regimen is not known. To identify TDF(More)
Quantification of the viral burden and identification of drug resistant mutations are important laboratory tools in the management of HIV-1 infected patients. However, widespread use of assays for viral load determination and genotyping is still hampered by the high cost. Here, an in-house RT-PCR-sequencing assay for HIV-1 drug resistance monitoring with(More)