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In this study, we evaluated baseline susceptibility to bevirimat (BVM), the first in a new class of antiretroviral agents, maturation inhibitors. We evaluated susceptibility to BVM by complete gag genotypic and phenotypic testing of 20 patient-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates and 20 site-directed mutants. We found that reduced BVM(More)
Genotypic assays are used often to guide clinicians in decisions concerning the treatment of patients. An optimized sequence-based genotypic assay was used to determine the whole protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) gene, including the gag cleavage site region and RNase H region. Since non-B subtypes are increasing in countries where subtype B was the(More)
HIV-1 RNA viral load is the preferred tool to monitor virological failure during antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure. Timely detection of virological failure can reduce the prevalence and complexity of HIV-1 drug resistance. This field evaluation further characterizes a two-step approach to identify virological failure, as a measure of ART adherence, and(More)
Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasing in resource-limited settings (RLS) and can successfully reduce HIV-related morbidity and mortality. However, virologic failure and development of viral drug resistance can result in reduced treatment options and disease progression. Additionally, transmission of resistant virus, and particularly(More)
Quantification of the viral burden and identification of drug resistant mutations are important laboratory tools in the management of HIV-1 infected patients. However, widespread use of assays for viral load determination and genotyping is still hampered by the high cost. Here, an in-house RT-PCR-sequencing assay for HIV-1 drug resistance monitoring with(More)
BACKGROUND Tenofovir (TDF) has replaced stavudine (d4T) as the preferred nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) in first-line regimens in South Africa, but limited information is available on the resistance patterns that develop after the introduction of TDF. This study investigated the antiretroviral drug resistance patterns in South African(More)
In resource-limited settings (RLS), reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors form the backbone of first-line treatment regimens. We have developed a simplified HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping assay targeting the region of RT harboring all major RT inhibitor resistance mutation positions, thus providing all relevant susceptibility data for first-line failures,(More)
The implementation of cost effective HIV-1 RNA quantitation assays in resource-poor settings is of paramount importance for monitoring HV-1 infection. A study comparing the analytical performance of three HIV-1 RNA assays (Generic HIV Viral Load, Amplicor v1.5 and Nuclisens EasyQ v1.2) was performed on 160 plasma samples from 160 consecutive antiretroviral(More)
Due to high cost, availability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance testing in resource-poor settings is still limited. We therefore evaluated the usefulness of viral DNA extracted from either whole blood or dried blood spots (DBS). Samples were collected from 50 patients receiving therapy and 10 therapy-naïve patients.(More)
OBJECTIVES Limited availability of viral load (VL) monitoring in HIV treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa can delay switching to second-line ART, leading to the accumulation of drug resistance mutations (DRMs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors after continued virological(More)