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Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasing in resource-limited settings (RLS) and can successfully reduce HIV-related morbidity and mortality. However, virologic failure and development of viral drug resistance can result in reduced treatment options and disease progression. Additionally, transmission of resistant virus, and particularly(More)
BACKGROUND Tenofovir (TDF) has replaced stavudine (d4T) as the preferred nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) in first-line regimens in South Africa, but limited information is available on the resistance patterns that develop after the introduction of TDF. This study investigated the antiretroviral drug resistance patterns in South African(More)
To date, the majority of HIV-1 phenotypic resistance testing has been performed with subtype B virus backbones (e.g. HXB2). However, the relevance of using this backbone to determine resistance in non-subtype B HIV-1 viruses still needs to be assessed. From 114 HIV-1 subtype C clinical samples (36 ARV-naïve, 78 ARV-exposed), pol amplicons were produced and(More)
In order to determine phenotypic protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated resistance in HIV subtype C virus, we have synthetically constructed an HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C) viral backbone for use in a recombinant virus assay. The in silico designed viral genome was divided into 4 fragments, which were chemically synthesized and joined together(More)
We evaluated a low-cost virological failure assay (VFA) on plasma and dried blood spot (DBS) specimens from HIV-1 infected patients attending an HIV clinic in Harare. The results were compared to the performance of the ultrasensitive heat-denatured p24 assay (p24). The COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version 2.0, served as the gold standard. Using(More)
BACKGROUND The knowledge-base of emerging drug resistance profiles in children exposed to abacavir-based antiretroviral regimens in South Africa is very limited. This study investigated the suitability of didanosine-based 2nd-line regimens for children in the context of antiretroviral drug resistance patterns emerging after 1st-line virologic failure. (More)
BACKGROUND As second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) becomes more accessible in resource-limited settings (RLS), the need for more affordable monitoring tools such as point-of-care viral load assays and simplified genotypic HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) tests increases substantially. The prohibitive expenses of genotypic HIVDR assays could partly be(More)
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