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OBJECTIVE We sought to investigate whether a low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Individuals with type 2 diabetes (n = 99) were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet (n = 49) or a diet following the American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines(More)
One subset of neural crest cells, the sympathoadrenal precursors, undergoes a switch in phenotype expression, when they invade the adrenal anlagen and become associated with adrenocortical cells. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for the conversion of noradrenaline synthesizing precursors to adrenaline producing endocrine chromaffin cells we studied(More)
This introductory article presents a survey of the principle cellular constituents of the sympathoadrenal section in the peripheral autonomic nervous system, their development and plasticity and factors that govern the expression of particular morphologic and transmitter phenotypes. The article focuses on results obtained in cell culture studies with(More)
Chromaffin precursor cells from embryonic rat adrenal glands were isolated at 16.3 and 20.3 days of gestation and purified by centrifugation on density gradients. Approximately 50% of the cells of both age groups that had attached to the culture substratum by 12 hr survived during a 4-day culture period in the absence of exogenous trophic factors. Nerve(More)
Neural crest derived precursors of the sympathoadrenal cell lineage give rise to two major cell types that differ in a number of morphological, ultrastructural, and biochemical characteristics: principal sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. The present article reviews experimental studies performed on cultured adrenal medullary(More)
The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) and ciliary neuronotrophic factor (CNTF) on catecholamine content and in vitro activities of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) were studied in adrenal chromaffin cells cultured from 8-day-old rats. Both NGF and CNTF enhanced chromaffin cell survival and partially prevented(More)
Using beta-bungarotoxin (beta-BTX) as a tool to eliminate the preganglionic cholinergic nerve supply to the embryonic rat adrenal gland, we have investigated whether or not these nerves affect the differentiation of embryonic chromaffin cells (pheochromoblasts). Rat fetuses received a single injection of 1 or 2 micrograms beta-BTX or an identical volume of(More)
Dairy products are the main source of calcium in the National School Lunch Program. Children who avoid dairy products because of lactose intolerance or other concerns can benefit from the availability of another calcium-rich beverage in the National School Lunch Program. This study assessed whether elementary school children would select and consume(More)
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