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Migration to intestinal mucosa putatively depends on local activation because gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue induces expression of intestinal homing molecules, whereas skin-draining lymph nodes do not. This paradigm is difficult to reconcile with reports of intestinal T cell responses after alternative routes of immunization. We reconcile this discrepancy(More)
The signaling adaptor TNFR-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) is specifically lost from virus-specific CD8 T cells during the chronic phase of infection with HIV in humans or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13 in mice. In contrast, TRAF1 is maintained at higher levels in virus-specific T cells of HIV controllers or after acute LCMV infection. TRAF1(More)
The development of nonviral, peptide-based constructs able to elicit protective in vivo CTL responses represents a major challenge in the design of future vaccines. We report the design of branched peptide delivery vehicles, termed loligomers, that facilitate the import, processing, and presentation of CTL epitopes onto nascent MHC class I molecules. These(More)
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