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Numerous animal models of depression have been advanced, each having multiple attributes and some limitations. This review provides caveats concerning etiologically valid animal models of depression, focusing on characteristics of the depressive subtype being examined (e.g. typical vs atypical major depression, dysthymia, melancholia), and factors that(More)
Gambling pathology has been associated with elevated levels of distress, depression and impulsivity. The present investigation assessed whether these behavioral features would be evident among problem gamblers as they are among pathological gamblers. As well, given that gambling has been associated with increased life stress, as an objective index of(More)
OBJECTIVES Although ambiguous and uncertain situations, such as those dealing with the threat of widespread viral illness, may have pronounced psychological ramifications, there have been few studies that examined the factors that contributed to such outcomes. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine emotional reactions to a health threat. (More)
The licorice derivative, carbenoxolone sodium, is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. When this enzyme is suppressed or is absent, endogenous glucocorticoids induce mineralocorticoid-like sodium retention by the kidney. Carbenoxolone sodium administered in vivo to an adrenalectomized rat has also recently been shown to(More)
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