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Many organ systems are adversely affected by diabetes, including the brain, which undergoes changes that may increase the risk of cognitive decline. Although diabetes influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the role of this neuroendocrine system in diabetes-induced cognitive dysfunction remains unexplored. Here we demonstrate that, in both(More)
The purpose of this study was to identify the functional fields activated in relation to gestural movements. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we mapped brain activity in ten right-handed, normal volunteers during activation and control tasks. The activation condition consisted of pantomiming tool-use gestures with either the left hand or(More)
Overall dietary energy intake, particularly the consumption of simple sugars such as fructose, has been increasing steadily in Western societies, but the effects of such diets on the brain are poorly understood. Here, we used functional and structural assays to characterize the effects of excessive caloric intake on the hippocampus, a brain region important(More)
Diabetes and normal aging are both characterized by increases in levels of glucocorticoids. Because long-term exposure to elevated glucocorticoids can be detrimental to hippocampal function, we evaluated the performance of young diabetic rats in the 14-unit T-maze, a task that is sensitive to hippocampal deficits. To assess the contribution of(More)
In addition to being the support cells of the central nervous system (CNS), astrocytes are now recognized as active players in the regulation of synaptic function, neural repair, and CNS immunity. Astrocytes are among the most structurally complex cells in the brain, and activation of these cells has been shown in a wide spectrum of CNS injuries and(More)
Physical activity preserves cognition in the aging brain, but the mechanisms remain obscure. In order to identify candidate genes and pathways responsible for the preservation of cognitive function by exercise, we trained mice that had been exposed to lifelong running or sedentary lifestyle for 16 months in the hippocampus-dependent water maze. After water(More)
Stress exerts complex effects on the brain and periphery, dependent on the temporal profile and intensity of the stressor. The consequences of a stressful event can also be determined by other characteristics of the stressor, such as whether it is predictable and controllable. While the traditional view has focused primarily on the negative effects of(More)
Diabetes may adversely affect cognitive function, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To investigate whether manipulations that enhance neurotrophin levels will also restore neuronal structure and function in diabetes, we examined the effects of wheel running and dietary energy restriction on hippocampal neuron morphology and brain-derived(More)
How aging impacts the central nervous system (CNS) is an area of intense interest. Glial morphology is known to affect neuronal and immune function as well as metabolic and homeostatic balance. Activation of glia, both astrocytes and microglia, occurs at several stages during development and aging. The present study analyzed changes in glial morphology and(More)
Connectivity between the hippocampus and hypothalamus plays an essential role in circadian rhythmicity and stress responsiveness. Both hippocampal dysfunction and loss of hormonal pulsatility have been demonstrated in aged animals, but the possibility of a functional interaction between these two processes remains unexplored. Correlated hippocampal(More)