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Many organ systems are adversely affected by diabetes, including the brain, which undergoes changes that may increase the risk of cognitive decline. Although diabetes influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the role of this neuroendocrine system in diabetes-induced cognitive dysfunction remains unexplored. Here we demonstrate that, in both(More)
Overall dietary energy intake, particularly the consumption of simple sugars such as fructose, has been increasing steadily in Western societies, but the effects of such diets on the brain are poorly understood. Here, we used functional and structural assays to characterize the effects of excessive caloric intake on the hippocampus, a brain region important(More)
Diabetes and normal aging are both characterized by increases in levels of glucocorticoids. Because long-term exposure to elevated glucocorticoids can be detrimental to hippocampal function, we evaluated the performance of young diabetic rats in the 14-unit T-maze, a task that is sensitive to hippocampal deficits. To assess the contribution of(More)
Like human fathers, male marmosets help raise their young, yet the ways in which fatherhood influences the brain remain largely unknown. We show that first-time and experienced marmoset fathers have enhanced density of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons in prefrontal cortex as compared to non-fathers. In parallel, the abundance of vasopressin V1a(More)
Physical activity preserves cognition in the aging brain, but the mechanisms remain obscure. In order to identify candidate genes and pathways responsible for the preservation of cognitive function by exercise, we trained mice that had been exposed to lifelong running or sedentary lifestyle for 16 months in the hippocampus-dependent water maze. After water(More)
Diabetes may adversely affect cognitive function, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To investigate whether manipulations that enhance neurotrophin levels will also restore neuronal structure and function in diabetes, we examined the effects of wheel running and dietary energy restriction on hippocampal neuron morphology and brain-derived(More)
Stress exerts complex effects on the brain and periphery, dependent on the temporal profile and intensity of the stressor. The consequences of a stressful event can also be determined by other characteristics of the stressor, such as whether it is predictable and controllable. While the traditional view has focused primarily on the negative effects of(More)
Connectivity between the hippocampus and hypothalamus plays an essential role in circadian rhythmicity and stress responsiveness. Both hippocampal dysfunction and loss of hormonal pulsatility have been demonstrated in aged animals, but the possibility of a functional interaction between these two processes remains unexplored. Correlated hippocampal(More)
In the hippocampus, glucocorticoids bind to two types of receptors: the mineralocorticoid receptor, which binds corticosterone with high affinity and is tonically occupied; and the glucocorticoid receptor, which is occupied during stress and at certain phases in the circadian cycle. Diabetes mellitus increases levels of glucocorticoids in both humans and(More)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) are the most common acute surgical emergencies associated with high morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. We aimed to compare the profiles of immunoregulatory proteins and identify novel mediators in plasma of NEC and SIP infants. We also investigated the expression of target(More)