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One of the challenges in data mining, and in particular genetic programs, is to provide sufficient coverage of the search space in order to produce an acceptable model. Traditionally, genetic programs generate equations (chromosomes) and consider all chromosomes within a population for breeding purposes. Considering the enormity of the search space for(More)
Nicotine improves cognitive functions by modulating neuroplasticity and cortical excitability in nonsmoking subjects. As shown recently, the positive effect of nicotine on cognition might at least partially be caused by a focusing effect of nicotine on neuroplasticity in these subjects. Concordant to this, smokers under nicotine withdrawal show reduced(More)
In various studies nicotine has shown to alter cognitive functions in non-smoking subjects. The physiological basis for these effects might be nicotine-generated modulation of cortical structure, excitability, and activity, as mainly described in animal experiments. In accordance, a recently conducted study demonstrated that application of nicotine for(More)
Many software organizations do not allocate enough resources for software quality. Therefore, the automated assessment of software, in terms of defect prediction, is an important issue to the software engineering community. Researchers seek to build accurate and reliable predictors using legacy data. However, it is a difficult task when one realizes that(More)
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