Kim G Mallard

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The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term unilateral resistance training (UL) and bilateral resistance training (BL) with free weights on several tests of unilateral and bilateral lower-body strength and power in men and women. Thirty-eight untrained men and women (mean body mass 78.3 +/- 21.47 kg; age 20.74 +/- 2.6 years) completed(More)
SUMMARY Spoligotyping is a well-established genotyping technique based on the presence of unique DNA sequences in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causal agent of tuberculosis disease (TB). Although advances in sequencing technologies are leading to whole-genome bacterial characterization, tens of thousands of isolates have been spoligotyped, giving a(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance (DR) challenges effective tuberculosis disease control. Current molecular tests examine limited numbers of mutations, and although whole genome sequencing approaches could fully characterise DR, data complexity has restricted their clinical application. A library (1,325 mutations) predictive of DR for 15(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is crucial for its control. MDR-TB in previously treated patients is generally attributed to the selection of drug resistant mutants during inadequate therapy rather than transmission of a resistant strain. Traditional genotyping methods are not sufficient to(More)
BACKGROUND Recurrent tuberculosis is a major health burden and may be due to relapse with the original strain or reinfection with a new strain. METHODS In a population-based study in northern Malawi, patients with tuberculosis diagnosed from 1996 to 2010 were actively followed after the end of treatment. Whole-genome sequencing with approximately 100-fold(More)
To improve understanding of the factors influencing tuberculosis transmission and the role of pathogen variation, we sequenced all available specimens from patients diagnosed over 15 years in a whole district in Malawi. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages were assigned and transmission networks constructed, allowing ≤10 single nucleotide polymorphisms(More)
BACKGROUND Sudan is a large country with a diverse population and history of civil conflict. Poverty levels are high with a gross national income per capita of less than two thousand dollars. The country has a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) with an estimated 50,000 incident cases during 2009, when the estimated prevalence was 209 cases per 100,000 of the(More)
BACKGROUND Resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is a serious public health problem. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), defined as resistance to at least rifampicin and isoniazid, has been reported in all regions of the world. Current phenotypic methods of assessing drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis are slow. Rapid molecular methods to detect(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) patients with strains common to other recent cases ('clustering') suggest recent transmission. HIV status and age may affect proportions clustered. We investigated TB clustering by HIV and age in a population-based study in Malawi. Among 746 patients, HIV infection increased the proportion clustered. Sex-period-adjusted odds ratios for the(More)
BACKGROUND Despite increasing interest in possible differences in virulence and transmissibility between different genotypes of M. tuberculosis, very little is known about how genotypes within a population change over decades, or about relationships to HIV infection. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In a population-based study in rural Malawi we have(More)