Kim E Mulholland

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BACKGROUND Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with(More)
BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis in children worldwide. However, many countries lack national estimates of disease burden. Effective interventions are available, including pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and case management. To support local and global policy decisions on pneumococcal(More)
Childhood pneumonia is the leading single cause of mortality in children aged less than 5 years. The incidence in this age group is estimated to be 0.29 episodes per child-year in developing and 0.05 episodes per child-year in developed countries. This translates into about 156 million new episodes each year worldwide, of which 151 million episodes are in(More)
BACKGROUND Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a leading cause of childhood bacterial meningitis, pneumonia, and other serious infections. Hib disease can be almost completely eliminated through routine vaccination. We assessed the global burden of disease to help national policy makers and international donors set priorities. METHODS We did a(More)
BACKGROUND In developing countries, pneumonia and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are common in children under age 12 months and the mortality from meningitis is high. Protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines have brought Hib disease under control in industrialised countries. We did a double-blind randomised trial in The Gambia to(More)
BACKGROUND Most studies of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in Asia have found low rates, and few Asian countries use Hib vaccine in routine immunisation programmes. Whether Hib disease truly is rare or whether many cases remain undetected is unclear. METHODS To estimate incidences of vaccine-preventable Hib pneumonia and meningitis among(More)
London International Development Centre, London, UK (Prof J Waage PhD, G Collender MSc); Pratham/ ASER Centre, New Delhi, India (R Banerji PhD); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK (Prof O Campbell PhD, Prof P Godfrey-Faussett FRCP, P Hanvoravongchai MD, Prof A Mills PhD, Prof K Mulholland FRACP); London School of Hygiene and Tropical(More)
BACKGROUND Routine immunisation of infants in The Gambia with a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine began in May, 1997. We investigated the effectiveness of the vaccine when delivered through the expanded programme on immunisation and the effect of national immunisation on incidence of Hib disease. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND There have been few studies that have examined associations between access to health care and child health outcomes in remote populations most in need of health services. This study assessed the effect of travel time and distance to health facilities on mortality in children under five years in a remote area of rural north-western Ethiopia. (More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether traditional measures of access to health care (distance and travel time to a facility) and non-traditional measures (social and financial support indicators) are associated with mortality among children under 5 years of age in the Gambia. METHODS We conducted a case-control study in a population under demographic surveillance.(More)