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Serotonin (5-HT) mediates its effects on neurons in the central nervous system through a number of different receptor types. To gain better insight as to the localization of 5-HT responsive cells, the distribution of cells expressing mRNAs encoding the three 5-HT receptor subtypes 1A, 1C, and 2 was examined in rat brain with in situ hybridization using cRNA(More)
The neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and their receptors trkB and trkC, respectively, are expressed in the locus coeruleus (LC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), brain regions known to be involved in opiate addiction. Previously, administration of exogenous neurotrophins has been shown to oppose effects of(More)
Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) interacts with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) to produce its biological effects. TGF alpha induces the proliferation and differentiation of central nervous system (CNS) astrocytes and pluripotent stem cells, as well as the survival and differentiation of postmitotic CNS neurons. Both TGF alpha and(More)
The adult brain contains small populations of neural precursor cells (NPC) that can give rise to new neurons and glia, and may play important roles in learning and memory, and recovery from injury. Growth factors can influence the proliferation, differentiation and survival of NPC, and may mediate responses of NPC to injury and environmental stimuli such as(More)
Studies of the trophic activities of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 indicate that both molecules support the survival of a number of different embryonic cell types in culture. We have shown that mRNAs for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 are localized to specific ventral mesencephalic regions containing dopaminergic(More)
In this review, we focus on the relationship among Parkinson's disease (PD), stress and depression. Parkinson's disease patients have a high risk of developing depression, and it is possible that stress contributes to the development of both pathologies. Stress dysfunction may have a role in the etiology of preclinical non-motor symptoms of PD (such as(More)
The documented trophic actions of the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) upon ventral mesencephalic dopamine neurons in vitro and in vivo are presumed to be mediated through interactions with their high-affinity receptors TrkB (for BDNF and NT-4/5) and TrkC (for NT-3). Although both(More)
Environmental enrichment attenuates neurological deficits associated with experimental brain injury. The molecular events that mediate these environmentally induced improvements in function after injury are largely unknown, but neurotrophins have been hypothesized to be a neural substrate because of their role in cell survival and neural plasticity.(More)
Immunoreactivities for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the dopamine-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were localized ultrastructurally and colocalized at the light microscopic level in neurons of the rat main olfactory bulb. By means of a simultaneous indirect immunofluorescence technique, GABA and TH immunoreactivities were found to coexist(More)
Using specific riboprobes, we characterized the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT)₁-VGLUT₃ transcripts in lumbar 4-5 (L4-5) dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and the thoracolumbar to lumbosacral spinal cord in male BALB/c mice after a 1- or 3-day hindpaw inflammation, or a 7-day sciatic nerve axotomy. Sham animals were also included. In sham(More)