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Numerous animal models of depression have been advanced, each having multiple attributes and some limitations. This review provides caveats concerning etiologically valid animal models of depression, focusing on characteristics of the depressive subtype being examined (e.g. typical vs atypical major depression, dysthymia, melancholia), and factors that(More)
PURPOSE To identify risk factors for stress fracture among young female distance runners. METHODS Participants were 127 competitive female distance runners, aged 18-26, who provided at least some follow-up data in a randomized trial among 150 runners of the effects of oral contraceptives on bone health. After completing a baseline questionnaire and(More)
Three studies assessed current understandings of sadomasochism (SM). In Study 1 questionnaires testing four academic views of SM were administered to individuals who self-defined as involved in SM. The psychoanalytic, psychopathology/medical model, radical feminist and escape-from-self perspectives were not supported. Study 2 examined "virtual"(More)
INTRODUCTION Nasogastric intubation has been shown to be a painful procedure for patients. Previous studies have demonstrated the benefit of topical nasal anesthesia in decreasing the pain of this procedure. This study attempts to identify which of 3 topical anesthetic modalities would be preferred by patients. METHODS This study had a double-blind,(More)
Gambling pathology has been associated with elevated levels of distress, depression and impulsivity. The present investigation assessed whether these behavioral features would be evident among problem gamblers as they are among pathological gamblers. As well, given that gambling has been associated with increased life stress, as an objective index of(More)
The pivotal role of rumination in relation to other coping strategies was assessed in chronically depressed (dysthymic disorder) individuals versus nondepressed controls. Individuals with dysthymia demonstrated elevated use of rumination and other emotion-focused strategies (emotional expression, emotional containment, self- and other-blame). Among patients(More)
Rejection sensitivity is a cognitive-affective processing disposition that has been linked to interpersonal difficulties. In this regard, the neuropeptide hormone, oxytocin, is thought to underlie social cognitions and behaviors that promote social affiliation. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), in which guanine (G)(More)
OBJECTIVES Although ambiguous and uncertain situations, such as those dealing with the threat of widespread viral illness, may have pronounced psychological ramifications, there have been few studies that examined the factors that contributed to such outcomes. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine emotional reactions to a health threat. (More)
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