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The physiological barriers of the brain impair drug delivery for treatment of many neurological disorders. One delivery approach that has not been investigated for their ability to penetrate the brain is RNA-based aptamers. These molecules can impart delivery to peripheral tissues and circulating immune cells, where they act as ligand mimics or can be(More)
Thousands of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in mammalian cells. Some have important functions and their dysregulation can contribute to a variety of disease states. However, most lncRNAs have not been functionally characterized. Complicating their study, lncRNAs have widely varying subcellular distributions: some reside predominantly in(More)
Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1 (SCA1) is an autosomal dominant late onset neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded polyglutamine tract in ataxin-1. Here, we compared the protective effects of overexpressing ataxin-1-like using recombinant AAVs, or reducing expression of mutant ataxin-1 using virally delivered RNA interference (RNAi), in a transgenic(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were shown to be important for pancreas development, yet their roles in differentiated β-cells remain unclear. Here, we show that miRNA inactivation in β-cells of adult mice results in a striking diabetic phenotype. While islet architecture is intact and differentiation markers are maintained, Dicer1-deficient β-cells show a dramatic(More)
Genome-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) provide a post-transcriptional regulatory layer that is important for pancreas development. However, how specific miRNAs are intertwined into the transcriptional network, which controls endocrine differentiation, is not well understood. Here, we show that microRNA-7 (miR-7) is specifically expressed in endocrine precursors(More)
PURPOSE Cataloguing endogenous miRNA targets by inhibiting miRNA function is fundamental to understanding the biological importance of each miRNA in gene regulatory pathways. Methods to down-regulate miRNA activity may help treat diseases where over-expression of miRNAs relates to the underlying pathophysiology. This study objectively evaluates the in vitro(More)
Anti-microRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs) are steric blocking antisense reagents that inhibit microRNA (miRNA) function by hybridizing and repressing the activity of a mature miRNA. First generation AMOs employed 2'-O-Methyl RNA nucleotides (2'OMe) with phosphorothioate (PS) internucleotide linkages positioned at both ends to block exonuclease attack. Second(More)
MicroRNAs are short, endogenous RNAs that direct posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression vital for many developmental and cellular functions. Implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, this group of RNAs provides interesting targets for therapeutic intervention. Anti-microRNA oligonucleotides constitute a class of synthetic(More)
Antisense techniques have been employed for over 30 years to suppress expression of target RNAs. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a new class of small, non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules that widely impact gene regulation, differentiation and disease states in both plants and animals. Antisense techniques that employ synthetic oligonucleotides(More)
Production of functional proteins requires multiple steps, including gene transcription and posttranslational processing. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate individual stages of these processes. Despite the importance of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel for epithelial anion transport, how its expression is regulated(More)