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Heart rate variability (HRV), extracted from an electrocardiogram, is known to be a noninvasive indicator reflecting the dynamic interplay between perturbations to cardiovascular function and the dynamic response of the cardiovascular regulatory system. Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a noninvasive method to monitor arterial oxygen saturation on a continuous(More)
This paper introduces a modified principal dynamic modes (PDM) method, which is able to separate the dynamics of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities. The PDM is based on the principle that among all possible choices of expansion bases, there are some that require the minimum number of basis functions to achieve a given mean-square(More)
A linear and nonlinear autoregressive (AR) moving average (MA) (ARMA) identification algorithm is developed for modeling time series data. The new algorithm is based on the concepts of affine geometry in which the salient feature of the algorithm is to remove the linearly dependent ARMA vectors from the pool of candidate ARMA vectors. For noiseless time(More)
The vector optimal parameter search (VOPS) and the constrained optimal parameter search (COPS) are recently developed algorithms for closed-loop linear system identification. We extend both algorithms to be applicable to a closed-loop nonlinear system, which is characterized by a vector nonlinear autoregressive model. Monte Carlo simulations of nonlinear(More)
We present a new method that uses the pulse oximeter signal to estimate the respiratory rate. The method uses a recently developed time-frequency spectral estimation method, variable-frequency complex demodulation (VFCDM), to identify frequency modulation (FM) of the photoplethysmogram waveform. This FM has a measurable periodicity, which provides an(More)
Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in endothelin-3 (ET-3) null (-/-) knockout mice and ET(A) receptor (-/-) mice were measured using the servo null pressure measuring technique under halothane anaesthesia. In infant ET-3 (-/-) mice (2-3 weeks old), mean BP and HR were 55+/-2 mmHg and 436+/-30 beats/min respectively. These values were not different from(More)
We extend a recently developed algorithm that expands the time-varying parameters onto a single set of basis functions, to multiple sets of basis functions. This feature allows the capability to capture many different dynamics that may be inherent in the system. A single set of basis functions that has its own unique characteristics can best capture(More)
A high resolution approach to estimating time-frequency spectra (TFS) and associated amplitudes via the use of variable frequency complex demodulation (VFCDM) is presented. This is a two-step procedure in which the previously developed time-varying optimal parameter search (TVOPS) technique is used to obtain TFS, followed by using the VFCDM to obtain even(More)
The bispectrum is a method to detect the presence of phase coupling between different components in a signal. The traditional way to quantify phase coupling is by means of the bicoherence index, which is essentially a normalized bispectrum. The major drawback of the bicoherence index (BCI) is that determination of significant phase coupling becomes(More)
This paper describes the development of a model-based approach to estimating both feedforward and feedback paths of causal time-varying coherence functions (TVCF). Theoretical derivations of the coherence bounds of the causal TVCF using the proposed approach are also provided. Both theoretical derivations and simulation results revealed interesting(More)