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BACKGROUND Our objective was to quantify and predict diabetes risk reduction during the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS) in participants who returned to normal glucose regulation at least once during the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) compared with those who consistently met criteria for prediabetes. METHODS DPPOS is an ongoing(More)
BACKGROUND Acute doses of elevated retrograde shear rate (SR) appear to be detrimental to endothelial function in resting humans. However, retrograde shear increases during moderate intensity exercise which also enhances post-exercise endothelial function. Since SR patterns differ with the modality of exercise, it is important to determine if augmented(More)
Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32(More)
BACKGROUND Normalization of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) to individual shear stress area under the curve (peak FMD:SSAUC ratio) has recently been proposed as an approach to control for the large inter-subject variability in reactive hyperemia-induced shear stress; however, the adoption of this approach among researchers has been slow. The(More)
OBJECTIVE This article examines the foundation of β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and suggests areas for future research on the underlying mechanisms that may lead to improved prevention and treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A group of experts participated in a conference on 14-16 October 2013 cosponsored by the Endocrine Society and the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether baseline adiponectin levels or intervention-associated change in adiponectin levels were independently associated with progression to diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of adiponectin and treatment-related(More)
Background—From a cardiovascular standpoint, the safety of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) blockers has been a topic of increasing concern. This concern stemmed from observations indicating that the COX-2 isoform is the major source of endothelium-derived prostacyclin and, hence, that selective blockade of this enzyme may impair endothelial health. To investigate(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin resistance is strongly associated with obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome (MS). The relative importance of these components in the determination of endothelial function is unknown. Furthermore, there is conflicting evidence about whether ethnic differences exist in the relative importance of these components in regard(More)
OBJECTIVE The C allele at the rs11212617 polymorphism in the ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene has been associated with greater clinical response to metformin in people with type 2 diabetes. We tested whether this variant modified the effect of metformin in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), in which metformin reduced diabetes incidence by 31% in(More)
The normal action of insulin to vasodilate and redistribute blood flow in support of skeletal muscle metabolism is impaired in insulin-resistant states. Increased endogenous endothelin contributes to endothelial dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Here, we test the hypothesis that increased endogenous endothelin action also contributes to skeletal muscle(More)