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Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. The "gold standard" glucose clamp and minimal model analysis are two established methods for determining insulin sensitivity in vivo, but neither is easily implemented in large studies. Thus, it is of interest(More)
PURPOSE This pilot work was conducted to evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation resistance training (RT) of the paralyzed knee extensor muscle groups on skeletal muscle and intramuscular fat (IMF) cross-sectional areas, trunk visceral adipose tissue (VAT), carbohydrate, and lipid profiles in men with spinal cord injury. METHODS Nine(More)
BACKGROUND Acute doses of elevated retrograde shear rate (SR) appear to be detrimental to endothelial function in resting humans. However, retrograde shear increases during moderate intensity exercise which also enhances post-exercise endothelial function. Since SR patterns differ with the modality of exercise, it is important to determine if augmented(More)
The objectives of this study were to evaluate test characteristics, such as normality of distribution, variation, and repeatability, of simple fasting measures of insulin sensitivity and to use the results to choose among these measures. Duplicate fasting samples of insulin and glucose were collected before 4 h of euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamping using(More)
OBJECTIVE This article examines the foundation of β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and suggests areas for future research on the underlying mechanisms that may lead to improved prevention and treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A group of experts participated in a conference on 14-16 October 2013 cosponsored by the Endocrine Society and the(More)
Endothelial dysfunction reflects an imbalance of vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. Endogenous endothelin activity seems to be increased in human obesity and type 2 diabetes, and cellular studies suggest that this factor may itself reduce bioavailable nitric oxide (NO). We studied 20 lean, 20 obese, and 14 type 2 diabetic individuals under three protocols,(More)
BACKGROUND Our objective was to quantify and predict diabetes risk reduction during the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS) in participants who returned to normal glucose regulation at least once during the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) compared with those who consistently met criteria for prediabetes. METHODS DPPOS is an ongoing(More)
  • Kieren Mather
  • 2009
TO THE EDITOR: In studies of human metabolic physiology a number of surrogate measures of insulin resistance have been proposed, and their relationships to formal measures of whole body insulin sensitivity made by classical insulin-glucose clamp measures have been assessed The most prominent of these at present are the homeostasis model index of insulin(More)
AIMS Whether long-term cardiovascular risk is reduced by the Diabetes Prevention Program interventions is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors and the use of lipid and blood pressure medications by the original Diabetes Prevention Program intervention group. METHODS This long-term(More)
CONTEXT Although intensive lifestyle change (ILS) and metformin reduce diabetes incidence in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), their effects on lipoprotein subfractions have not been studied. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to characterize the effects of ILS and metformin vs placebo interventions on lipoprotein subfractions in the(More)