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The balance between excitatory and inhibitory synapses is crucial for normal brain function. Wnt proteins stimulate synapse formation by increasing synaptic assembly. However, it is unclear whether Wnt signaling differentially regulates the formation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Here, we demonstrate that Wnt7a preferentially stimulates excitatory(More)
Perception of normal bodily sensations relies on the precise regulation of sensory information entering the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Inhibitory, axoaxonic, synapses provide a mechanism for this regulation, but the source of these important inhibitory connections remains to be elucidated. This study shows that a subpopulation of spinal interneurons(More)
KEY POINTS The superficial spinal dorsal horn contains a heterogeneous population of neurons that process sensory inputs. Information on the properties of excitatory interneurons in this region is limited. As calretinin is a protein thought to be restricted to an excitatory population in this region, the aim of this study was to characterize(More)
The superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord contains numerous inhibitory interneurons, which regulate the transmission of information perceived as touch, pain, or itch. Despite the importance of these cells, our understanding of their roles in the neuronal circuitry is limited by the difficulty in identifying functional populations. One group that has(More)
The functional assembly of the synaptic release machinery is well understood; however, how signalling factors modulate this process remains unknown. Recent studies suggest that Wnts play a role in presynaptic function. To examine the mechanisms involved, we investigated the interaction of release machinery proteins with Dishevelled-1 (Dvl1), a scaffold(More)
The superficial dorsal horn, which is the main target for nociceptive and pruritoceptive primary afferents, contains a high density of excitatory interneurons. Our understanding of their roles in somatosensory processing has been restricted by the difficulty of distinguishing functional populations among these cells. We recently defined three(More)
  • Li Brary, Katherine A Boyle, Timothy T Fendley, K A Boyle, T T Fendley
  • 1987
Habitat models are designed for a wide variety of planning applications where habitat information is an important consideration in the decision process. However, it is impossible to develop a model that performs equally well in all situations. Assistance from users and researchers is an important part of the mode 1 improvement process. Each model is(More)
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