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Multivariable regression models are powerful tools that are used frequently in studies of clinical outcomes. These models can use a mixture of categorical and continuous variables and can handle partially observed (censored) responses. However, uncritical application of modelling techniques can result in models that poorly fit the dataset at hand, or, even(More)
The nonlinear discriminant function obtained using a minimum squared error cost function can be shown to be directly related to the nonlinear Fisher discriminant (NFD). With the squared error cost function, the orthogonal least squares (OLS) algorithm can be used to find a parsimonious description of the nonlinear discriminant function. Two simple(More)
Nodal and Activin are morphogens of the TGFbeta superfamily of signaling molecules that direct differential cell fate decisions in a dose- and distance-dependent manner. During early embryonic development the Nodal/Activin pathway is responsible for the specification of mesoderm, endoderm, node, and mesendoderm. In contradiction to this drive towards(More)
Regulation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling is critical in vertebrate development, as several members of the TGF-beta family have been shown to act as morphogens, controlling a variety of cell fate decisions depending on concentration. Little is known about the role of intracellular regulation of the TGF-beta pathway in development.(More)
The Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) beta signalling family includes morphogens, such as Nodal and Activin, with important functions in vertebrate development. The concentration of the morphogen is critical for fate decisions in the responding cells. Smad2 and Smad3 are effectors of the Nodal/Activin branch of TGFbeta signalling: they are activated by(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α, or EPAS1) is important for cancer progression, and is a putative biomarker for poor prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, molecular mechanisms underlying the EPAS1 overexpression are not still fully understood. We explored a role of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs13419896 located within(More)
Notch signaling is frequently hyperactivated in breast cancer, but how the enhanced signaling contributes to the tumor process is less well understood. In this report, we identify the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a novel Notch target in breast tumor cells. Enhanced Notch signaling upregulated IL-6 expression, leading to activation of(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum stress from unfolded proteins is associated with the proliferation of pancreatic tumor cells, making the many regulatory molecules of this pathway appealing targets for therapy. The objective of our study was to assess potential therapeutic efficacy of inhibitors of unfolded protein response (UPR) in pancreatic cancers focusing on(More)
BACKGROUND The PIAS4 protein belongs to the family of protein inhibitors of activated STAT, but has since been implicated in various biological activities including the post-translational modification known as sumoylation. In this study, we explored the roles of PIAS4 in pancreatic tumourigenesis. METHODS The expression levels of PIAS4 in pancreatic(More)