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BACKGROUND The elastolytic enzyme matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 has been implicated in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling. We investigated whether human airway smooth muscle cells could express and secrete MMP-12, thereby participating in the pathogenesis of airway inflammatory diseases. METHODS Laser capture microdissection was(More)
BACKGROUND Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR 2) has been shown to be responsible for trypsin and mast cell tryptase-induced airway inflammation. Here, the present study aimed to explore the expression of PAR 2 in the nasal mucosa of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). METHODS Study subjects were recruited for the study by medical history, physical(More)
BACKGROUND Airway wall remodelling and inflammation are features of chronic asthma. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) has been implicated in these processes. AIM To determine the effect of allergen challenge on airway inflammation and remodelling and whether TGF-beta isoforms and the Smad signalling pathways are involved. METHODS Thirteen(More)
Phosphodiesterases hydrolyse intracellular cyclic nucleotides, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) into inactive 5' monophosphates, and exist as 11 families. They are found in a variety of inflammatory and structural cells. Inhibitors of PDEs allow the elevation of cAMP and cGMP which lead to a variety of cellular(More)
Omalizumab is the first of a new generation of targeted asthma therapies. This monoclonal antibody against IgE is now licensed for use in atopic asthma. The majority of asthmatics are well controlled with conventional therapies. However, there remains a cohort of patients with severe refractory asthma, despite currently available treatments ( approximately(More)
A previous genome-wide association study in asthma revealed putative associations that merit further investigation. In this study, the genome-wide significant associations of SNPs at the 5% false discovery rate were examined in independent groups of severe asthmatics. The panel consisted of 397 severe asthmatic adults, 116 severe asthmatic children, and a(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with chronic asthma have thicker intrapulmonary airways measured on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). We determined whether the presence of lower airway bacteria was associated with increased airway wall thickness. METHODS In 56 patients with stable severe asthma, sputum specimens obtained either spontaneously or after(More)
Results H2S levels in induced sputum from severe and nonsevere asthmatic patients were significantly higher than those from healthy subjects but there was no difference between the severe and non-severe group. Serum H2S levels were 10 times higher than in sputum and these were also higher in severe and non-severe asthmatic subjects compared to healthy(More)
INTRODUCTION Asthma is a variable lung condition whereby patients experience periods of controlled and uncontrolled asthma symptoms. Patients who experience prolonged periods of uncontrolled asthma have a higher incidence of exacerbations and increased morbidity and mortality rates. The ability to determine and to predict levels of asthma control and the(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the long-term natural history of asthma and the long-term clinical and functional consequences in non-smoking patients. From a functional point of view, non-smoking asthmatic patients may have a significantly greater decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) compared with non-asthmatic subjects and may develop(More)
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