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OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to clarify the anatomic variations of the intrathoracic nerve of Kuntz, and this should help delineate the resection margins during video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy. METHODS Sixty-six thoracic sympathetic chains of 39 adult Korean cadavers were dissected on both sides of the thorax in 27 cadavers (54 sides) and on(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of the present study was to determine the locations of the infraorbital foramen and mental foramen based on soft-tissue landmarks to facilitate prediction of the locations of these structures during facial surgery. METHODS Fifty embalmed cadavers (100 sides) of Koreans were dissected to expose the infraorbital foramen and mental(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to investigate the general structure of the incisive canal (IC) using 3-dimensional reconstruction and to classify into various types according to several criteria. STUDY DESIGN The materials used in the study were 56 anterior maxillae harvested from human cadavers. The specimens were scanned with microscopic(More)
The aim of this study was to provide data on various dimensions of the normal cochlea using three-dimensional reconstruction based on high-resolution micro-CT images. The petrous parts of 39 temporal bones were scanned by micro-computed tomography (CT) with a slice thickness of 35 μm. The micro-CT images were used in reconstructing three-dimensional volumes(More)
A variation of the brachial plexus, characterized by the absence of the musculocutaneous nerve on the left arm, was found during the dissection of a 28-year old male cadaver. The whole lateral cord was joined to the median nerve, which it met in two points. One was a typical junction of both roots of the median nerve at the level of the coracoid process.(More)
BACKGROUND Topography and fascicular arrangement of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) can provide critical information for the estimation of damage to IAN based on patient symptoms, or conversely to evaluate the symptoms resulting from injury to the IAN. PURPOSE The fascicular composition and organization of the IAN were determined to confirm the(More)
OBJECTIVE To propose a safe and reproducible injection point for botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) as a supplementary method for the treatment of gummy smile, as determined by assessment of the morphologic characteristics of three lip elevator muscles. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 hemi-faces from 25 adult cadavers (male 13, female 12; ages, 47 to 88 years)(More)
The masseter muscle has superficial tendons that interdigitate like a saw (tendinous digitations), but a detailed description of these tendons is lacking in anatomic textbooks and atlases. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the topographic anatomy of the masseter muscle, focusing on its tendinous digitation. Sixty-five adult faces (113 sides)(More)
The mandible is the largest and hardest facial bone and retains its shape better than other bones in the forensic and physical anthropologic field. The mandible can be used to distinguish among ethnic groups and between sexes. We examined the morphological characteristics of the mandibles of 102 Koreans of either sex. Of 13 nonmetric items of the mandible,(More)
The vibrissal follicle-sinus complex (FSC) is a sensory receptor of the mammalian integumentary system that is located around the mouth. The purpose of the present study was to identify the actual 3-dimensional structure of the rat vibrissal FSC. Rat skin tissue was serially sectioned at a thickness of 10 μm and then stained with Masson's trichrome. The(More)