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The aim of this study was to provide data on various dimensions of the normal cochlea using three-dimensional reconstruction based on high-resolution micro-CT images. The petrous parts of 39 temporal bones were scanned by micro-computed tomography (CT) with a slice thickness of 35 μm. The micro-CT images were used in reconstructing three-dimensional volumes(More)
The masseter muscle has superficial tendons that interdigitate like a saw (tendinous digitations), but a detailed description of these tendons is lacking in anatomic textbooks and atlases. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the topographic anatomy of the masseter muscle, focusing on its tendinous digitation. Sixty-five adult faces (113 sides)(More)
The dramatic changes in facial expression are most remarkable in the perioral region. Among the perioral musculatures, the zygomaticus major (ZMj) muscle plays an important role in the facial expression. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomic patterns of the bifid ZMj through a topographic examination at the perioral region. Through 70(More)
It is well known that the head and face are smaller in female subjects than in male subjects. However, almost all previous studies have quantified the size difference between female and male subjects as simple numerical values, which might not clarify the difference. The present study evaluated the female-to-male proportions of the head and face so as to(More)
The vibrissal capsular muscle (VCM) of the rat is known to differ from the arrector pili muscle. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the rat VCM morphologically using three-dimensional reconstruction. The rat snout skin was fixed, processed with routine histological methods, sectioned serially at a thickness of 10 µm, and then stained with(More)
PURPOSE Organs and structures develop symmetrically, but various degrees of asymmetry can also develop because of the effects of function and disease. The human face is often asymmetrical, but faces can be perceived as beautiful even if they are asymmetrical. The purpose of the present study was to investigate horizontal angular asymmetry of the face. (More)
BACKGROUND Topography and fascicular arrangement of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) can provide critical information for the estimation of damage to IAN based on patient symptoms, or conversely to evaluate the symptoms resulting from injury to the IAN. PURPOSE The fascicular composition and organization of the IAN were determined to confirm the(More)
The present study involved a detailed investigation of 3 cases of bifid rib, focusing on anatomical features, and classified them into 2 types. The bifid ribs were in the right fourth rib of all 3 male cadavers. The upper intercostal spaces of the fourth bifid rib were considerably narrowed, whereas the lower intercostal spaces were widened. Although the(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of the present study was to determine the locations of the infraorbital foramen and mental foramen based on soft-tissue landmarks to facilitate prediction of the locations of these structures during facial surgery. METHODS Fifty embalmed cadavers (100 sides) of Koreans were dissected to expose the infraorbital foramen and mental(More)
A variation of the brachial plexus, characterized by the absence of the musculocutaneous nerve on the left arm, was found during the dissection of a 28-year old male cadaver. The whole lateral cord was joined to the median nerve, which it met in two points. One was a typical junction of both roots of the median nerve at the level of the coracoid process.(More)