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Neuropeptides are used as signaling molecules in the nervous system of most organisms, including mammals. The family of FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2)-like neuropeptides (FaRPs) all share an RFamide sequence at their C-termini and have been shown to have diverse functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the nematode Caenorhabditis(More)
Neuropeptides have diverse roles in the function and development of the nervous system. With the completion of the sequencing of the C. elegans genome, rapid identification of nematode neuropeptide genes is possible. To date, 41 C. elegans neuropeptide genes have been identified. Of these genes, 20 genes, named flp (FMRFamide-like peptide) genes, encode(More)
The fan and rays of the C. elegans male tail constitute a compound sensory organ essential for mating. Within this organ, the individual sensilla, known as rays, have unique identities. We show that ray identities are patterned by a selector gene mechanism in a manner similar to other serially homologous axial structures. One selector gene that promotes the(More)
Liver fibrosis occurs as a wound-healing response to chronic hepatic injuries irrespective of the underlying etiology and may progress to life-threatening cirrhosis. Here we show that CCN1, a matricellular protein of the CCN (CYR61/CTGF/NOV) family, is accumulated in hepatocytes of human cirrhotic livers. CCN1 is not required for liver development or(More)
Many organisms, including mammals, use short peptides as neurotransmitters. The family of FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2)-like neuropeptides, which all share an -RFamide sequence at their C-termini, has been shown to have diverse functions, including neuromodulation and stimulation or inhibition of muscle contraction. In the nematode, Caenorhabditis(More)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic compounds comprised of two or more fused benzene rings arranged in various configurations. PAHs are widespread environmental contaminants formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic materials such as fossil fuels. The occurrence of PAHs in ambient air is an increasing concern(More)
A widely used chemical, formaldehyde is normally present in both indoor and outdoor air. The rapid growth of formaldehyde-related industries in the past two decades reflects the result of its increased use in building materials and other commercial sectors. Consequently, formaldehyde is encountered almost every day from large segments of society due to its(More)
The increase in cases of asthma and allergies has become an important health issue throughout the globe. Although these ailments were not common diseases a few short decades ago, they are now affecting a large part of the population in many regions. Exposure to environmental (both outdoor and indoor) pollutants may partially account for the prevalence of(More)
Perceived order of two consecutive stimuli may not correspond to the order of their physical onsets. Such a disagreement presumably results from a difference in the speed of stimulus processing toward central decision mechanisms. Since previous evidence suggests that the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays a role in modulating the processing speed(More)
Liver cholestatic diseases, which stem from diverse etiologies, result in liver toxicity and fibrosis and may progress to cirrhosis and liver failure. We show that CCN1 (also known as CYR61), a matricellular protein that dampens and resolves liver fibrosis, also mediates cholangiocyte proliferation and ductular reaction, which are repair responses to(More)