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We show that a mobile phone can serve as an accurate monitor for several physiological variables, based on its ability to record and analyze the varying color signals of a fingertip placed in contact with its optical sensor. We confirm the accuracy of measurements of breathing rate, cardiac R-R intervals, and blood oxygen saturation, by comparisons to(More)
Calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn) requires a priori determination of two unknown parameters, m and r. While the recommended values of r, in the range of 0.1¿0.2 times the standard deviation of the signal, have been shown to be applicable for a wide variety of signals, in certain cases, r values within this prescribed range can lead to an incorrect(More)
We compared the dynamic characteristics in renal autoregulation of blood flow of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), using both linear and nonlinear systems analysis. Linear analysis yielded only limited information about the differences in dynamics between SDR and SHR. The predictive ability, as determined by(More)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnosis of the arrhythmia, particularly transient episodes, can be difficult since patients may be asymptomatic. In this study, we describe a robust algorithm for automatic detection of AF based on the randomness, variability(More)
Calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn) requires a priori determination of two unknown parameters, m and r. While the recommended values of r, in the range of 0.1-0.2 times the standard deviation of the signal, have been shown to be applicable for a wide variety of signals, in certain cases, r values within this prescribed range can lead to an incorrect(More)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects three to five million Americans and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Existing methods to diagnose this paroxysmal arrhythmia are cumbersome and/or expensive. We hypothesized that an iPhone 4S can be used to detect AF based on its ability to record a pulsatile photoplethysmogram signal from a fingertip(More)
Heart rate variability (HRV), extracted from an electrocardiogram, is known to be a noninvasive indicator reflecting the dynamic interplay between perturbations to cardiovascular function and the dynamic response of the cardiovascular regulatory system. Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a noninvasive method to monitor arterial oxygen saturation on a continuous(More)
We present a new method that uses the pulse oximeter signal to estimate the respiratory rate. The method uses a recently developed time-frequency spectral estimation method, variable-frequency complex demodulation (VFCDM), to identify frequency modulation (FM) of the photoplethysmogram waveform. This FM has a measurable periodicity, which provides an(More)
This paper introduces a modified principal dynamic modes (PDM) method, which is able to separate the dynamics of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities. The PDM is based on the principle that among all possible choices of expansion bases, there are some that require the minimum number of basis functions to achieve a given mean-square(More)
This paper discusses several important factors which can influence the accuracy of the results obtained from application of the well-known Approximate Entropy (ApEn) method and the more recently developed Sample Entropy (SampEn) method to fast neurophysiological signals. Based on the performance of these methods on both computer simulation and experimental(More)