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BACKGROUND Severe forms of dengue, the most important arboviral infection of man, are associated with haemorrhagic disease and a generalised vascular leak syndrome. The importance of dengue as a cause of neurological disease is uncertain. METHODS During 1995, all patients with suspected CNS infections admitted to a referral hospital in southern Vietnam(More)
The prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections among 55 domestic swine living in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal was investigated. Sera and stool specimens were collected from 47 free-roaming swine and examined for the presence of HEV genomic sequences by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Sera from these animals, as well as sera from(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important cause of viral hepatitis. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of an HEV recombinant protein (rHEV) vaccine in a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS In Nepal, we studied 2000 healthy adults susceptible to HEV infection who were randomly assigned to receive three doses of(More)
Japanese encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes approximately 10000 deaths annually in Asia. After a brief viraemia, the virus enters the central nervous system, but the means of crossing the blood-brain barrier is uncertain. We used routine histological staining, immunohistology and electron microscopy to examine brain material from(More)
Diagnosis of acute hepatitis E by detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV)-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an established procedure. We investigated whether quantitation of HEV IgM and its ratio to HEV total Ig furnished more information than conventional IgM tests that are interpreted as positive or negative. A previously described indirect immunoassay for(More)
To confirm an earlier report that laboratory rats are susceptible to infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV), we inoculated 27 Wistar rats intravenously with a suspension of a human stool known to contain infectious HEV. Stool, sera, and various tissues were collected from three rats each on days 0 (preinoculation) and 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, 28, and(More)
BACKGROUND Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis that is often under-recognized in children and commonly confused with dengue in tropical settings. An enhanced ability to distinguish leptospirosis from dengue in children would guide clinicians and public health personnel in the appropriate use of limited healthcare resources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
Twelve rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) challenged intranasally with a wild-type Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) developed clinical signs 11-14 days later. Tissues from the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus, meninges, and all levels of the spinal cord were stained for JEV antigen with hyperimmune mouse ascitic fluid and(More)